Tuesday, 25 September 2012

Question of the Week: Peasantry!

Take a look at the previous blog post. In addition to what you have done in class answer the question below. The role of peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification. Discuss. To what extent is this true? Why are so many Caribbean economies in trouble (while a few seem to be doing better)  if we all shared the same evolution . Provide lots of examples in your discussion.
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76 comments:

  1. The role of peasantry contributed vastly to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification. This is true to the extent that since the twentieth century agriculture had begun to play a very important role in the diversification of the West Indian economies. Studies show that “Norman commission made recommendations for the development of peasantry,” but only a few of these recommendations were put into effect therefore leading to the prevention of the peasants to make a more significant contribution to the development of the West Indian economy.
    Agriculture and research, to some extent helped to increase output in some territories, which led to a more scientific approach to the cultivation of sugar cane and the manufacture of sugar. Crops such as banana, pimento, coffee, cocoa, Sea Island cotton, nutmeg and limes helped to revive the economy of the British West Indies. Many of these crops later became major exported crops, such as bananas and coffee. When prices feel significantly many islands stopped the export production of these crops. Islands however, sort other means of diversification e.g. tar and asphalt. Through Society diversification where; “the survival of the indigenous people whom contributed to the complexity of the Caribbean ethnic mixture”. Today their largest numbers are located in the territories of Belize, Guyana, etc. In the islands small pockets of them exist in Trinidad, St. Vincent, St. Lucia and Dominica. Social demographic changes stemmed from the white dominating Caribs and Arawak’s and a large enslaved population became stratified according to class and colour. Today the Africans dominated the whites in the minority top of the social strata through social mobility.
    Economically in the past times the plantation system – slave labour was the economic life- agricultural system; and because plantation was a business and still is a business. Some Caribbean countries today, face challenges which derive from the loss of infrastructure due to flooding’s and hurricane. Because of this the prices of input e.g. fertilizers have increased, the price of labour, packaging, sudden change of standards and competition, as these small scale farmers are now forced to compete with high trade of products in return for very little or nothing for theirs. If this continues it may source a problem along the lines of an increase in the unemployment, and poverty rates. Therefore some farmers have sorted other means of diversification as they believe this is the only way to survive.

    www.caribbeanedu.com/odyssey/Timeliner

    Name: Karina Farrell
    Students ID: 812117616

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  2. Peasantry has evolved in today’s world. From since the plantation era, many slaves settled along hills and flat lands, providing families with not just a way to survive, but to expand for example exporting and creating business in markets to sell to everyday consumers and farmers alike. This can also be further expanded into part time farming for example, in many Caribbean countries; mere citizens may plant small crops and sell in markets as a side business or provide services other than planting and use agriculture as their means of eating. Another example is where St Kitts and Nevis has reach a point where they and provide hotels with food so that imports can be fewer with help from the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and by the Caribbean Agricultural Research Development Institute (CARDI). But not all countries has experienced a positive peasantry life. A lot of countries still have lots of problems that deter them from a good standard of living or just food to eat for themselves.
    For example in Nigeria, poverty is rampant here, and in the agriculture sector, many lands are being unattended to which can double crops for the countries. But not just that, it can provide many jobbing opportunities for many citizens who are below the poverty line
    Another example is in the Isingiro District in Uganda, where the land portions are small after dividing it for their children. Also, thirty six out of one hundred and forty one farmers have experience on food security and food sovereignty. This can tell us that this and even others countries example Nigeria, lacks proper information to maximize their farming leaving them at a disadvantage.
    http://www.iica.int/eng/prensa/iicaconexion/IICAConexion2/2012/N09/secundaria1.aspx
    www.ruralpovertyportal.org

    Kareem Garvin
    812002898

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  3. Peasantry in the Caribbean region has vastly contributed in the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification in the Caribbean region. This is true to a great extent as, as a result of peasantry we now have a certain type of agriculture being prominent as most modern farms are small scale and produce cash crops whereas there still exists some plantation type agriculture for example sugar cane in Guyana. Due to the evolution of the peasantry since then economies have become somewhat diversified as not only was the plantation crop being exported, the peasantry spawned a local market of consumable crops on a smaller scale but the range of crops and products derived from such was diverse in that multiple crops were grown and traded.
    The peasantry had influenced Caribbean society greatly as peasantry consisted of freed slaves and their descendants, therefore, their culture, their way of living, foods and customs are now the norm to us Caribbean people. Our behavior is much linked to the village structure and social structure of the peasantry period, now we even live in the same villages and use institutions that were conceived in that era, eg. guild banks and agricultural societies.
    Presently, economic diversification is an issue that all Caribbean territories need to address in order to be economically successful, however this is something difficult to do as most territories are small in size and have limited resources, for example most islands in the lesser Antilles rely solely on tourism and agriculture which is constrained by land issues due to mountainous terrain, such as in countries that grow one crop and that is their main income, they are governed by that crop for example bananas in Dominica, banana prices and diseases affect the entire country, and its economic state. However some territories for example Trinidad and Guyana have other natural resources, oil and Bauxite respectively thus allowing them to further diversify their economies and gain economically from various places making them more marketable.
    I.D: 812001643

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  4. The role of peasantry has vastly contributed to the development of the Caribbean's social, economic and agricultural diversification. To a great extent, this statement is true. As a result of peasantry, there was a shift from the plantation system, where mainly sugar cane was grown for export purposes, towards small scale farming where a wide range cash crops were cultivated. Amongst the crops cultivated were ground provisions, bananas, pumpkin, breadfruit and fruits. The excess crops were sold to the the planter and his family. The sale of these cash crops enabled the peasants to gain an income as well as helping to diversify the islands monoculture based economy.
    The establishment of peasatry also influenced social life in the Caribbean. The values and norms that were practiced by peasants is still prevelant throughout the Caribbean. value and norms such as kinship, brothergood, neighbourly love and respect for elders can still be seen today. Also social institutions such as churches and schools were established by these peasants. They also founded coorperatives such as the Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago and the Jamaican Agricultural Society which are still operational even to this day.
    Although Caribbean economies srared the same evolution, some economies are better off than others. This is mainly because some islands have large reserves of natural resources. This is the case as in Trinidad and Jamaica where the discovery of oil and bauxite has led to these countries having industrial-based economies. However, many of the smaller teritories are not as fortunate and have to depend on heavily on tourism and agriculture. These economies face several challenges. An example is the banana industry in the Lesser Antilies where diseases such as the black sigitoka disease, the frequency of hurricanes as well as inceased competition from other larger banana producing countries has lead to the crippling of the economies of those islands.

    Vishram Bickaree
    I.D.#~ 812003898

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  5. The role of Peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean Agriculture, society and economic diversification. This is true to an extent which was demonstrated by the time of emancipation in 1838, as some slaves left and cultivated on available land. They contributed to society by those who could communicate with different languages, spread the word about agricultural farming. They began small scale production systems and eventually expanded. Diversification originated with the slaves, as they practiced monocultivation. They established old and new agricultural crops developed and managed crops such as bananas, coffee, cocoa, etc. This made a huge economic contribution as these successful good were then exported and endorsed by planters in the 1870’s. The slaves were industrious not only by choice but because of this, agriculture today still have a fighting chance of existence from which it originated.
    Many Caribbean countries have the same evolution but lack support and resources. Many Government economies showed a negative reaction to financing and supporting agriculture. Farmers today and in the past were ignored which resulted from peasantry. Available soils from peasants were infertile and diminished of nutrients which were passed down onto future generations. This affects the growth of plants and the possibility for them to grow from a seedling into a crop. An Island such as Trinidad and Tobago, where resources such as the Pitch Lake are available, is not to others. Availability of land and natural weather conditions widely affects agriculture. Countries such as Africa and Australia, because of dry lands, are affected by drought thus water availability results in low productivity. Some countries have no market for agriculture and infrastructure because of poor condition roads decreases the transport of goods. In Trinidad, Predial larceny affects the availability of goods to carry to market.

    Jenette Greenidge
    ID#: 812001010

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  6. When you look at the Caribbean Islands today you can see that peasantry had a major influence to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification. This is so because peasantry diversified the basically monocultural pattern. There was a shift from provision to mixed production and export crop production e.g. spices and cocoa. They produced a great quantity and variety of subsistence and livestock as well as attempted to build local self-generating communities. Also they introduced new crops and re-introduced old ones. This can be seen after the 1850's where they introduced or re-introduced bananas, coffee and cocoa in Jamaica and cocoa, spices and bananas in the Windward Islands.
    So many Caribbean countries' economies are in trouble because they rely so heavily on agriculture. Due to a shortage of resources and capital, combating attacks of diseases was always severely limited. We can also see how the economies were badly damaged due to the recent onslaught of hurricane Thomas. Most the the crops in islands such as St Lucia was destroyed and as a result are now in the process of re-establishing themselves. A few countries such as Trinidad and Barbados seem to be doing better because their economies rely on other sectors. Trinidad relies heavily on the oil and gas sector while Barbados makes most of its money from tourism.

    Nigel Birbal
    809001049

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  7. The role of peasantry has vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification. However, it has negatively affected the outlook on agriculture in the Caribbean today. The peasantry system after emancipation, the once enslaved had an opportunity to provide for their families and themselves but, the peasants were constantly ignored by the government and were left to experiment on their own with new crops and techniques. There became a shortage of peasant fertile land leaving others to settle on areas of less fertility for example, some settled on the hillsides. As a way to suppress the ex-slaves they were granted no credit and there was an inadequate market for their crops. There was backwardness in the knowledge of the agricultural system to demotivate the ex-slaves from being self- sufficient. This lack of knowledge is a factor which has contributed to the decline in the agricultural system today. So, I would agree that the role of peasantry has contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture but I must say it is to an extent.
    It is my opinion even though all the Caribbean countries share the same evolution there are major differences in each economy. The countries which seem to be better off are countries that are politically stable, countries which have natural resources to rely on for years on end and countries which have a strong Tourism industry. For example, Trinidad and Tobago is known in the Caribbean as being one of the world’s top oil producing countries contributing greatly to the country’s Gross domestic Product. Whereas, a country like Haiti is considered to be one of the poorer nations as its agriculture industry has plummeted and there is little resources available. In closing I must say that although we all have the same evolution some countries have more to offer making their economy seemingly well off to the eye.
    Tori De Freitas-Baptiste
    812003174

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  8. The growth of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification is clearly influenced by the role of peasantry.
    As peasantry began, Caribbean agriculture was affected in the process. It is through this small scale farming that the Caribbean market shifted from subsistence to a mixed economy. This was beneficial as it meant less goods were wasted as excess could be sold. In addition, this meant that members of society could now have more money, to better their lives.
    Society was affected as today the Caribbean culture is one where farming is very common. Many people today in islands such as Tobago and places like Guyana, people still have a small farm behind their house, where they grow their own fruits and vegetables and rear their own foul.
    Moreover, through the growth of the agricultural division, exporting became common and Caribbean islands became large exporters of agricultural products such as cocoa and spices, along with their own natural resources such as natural gas and oil. This contributed to economic diversification.
    However, many Caribbean economies are in trouble because some islands were unable to develop their market efficiently. Haiti for example, due to plantations, is unable to have a thriving market because of the exhausting of it's natural resources. As compared to islands that were able to truly develop because of an economic advantage. Such as Barbados, which put its main focus into its tourism industry and Grenada which makes a lot of its yearly income by exporting nutmeg.

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    Replies
    1. The growth of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification is clearly influenced by the role of peasantry.
      As peasantry began, Caribbean agriculture was affected in the process. It is through this small scale farming that the Caribbean market shifted from subsistence to a mixed economy. This was beneficial as it meant less goods were wasted as excess could be sold. In addition, this meant that members of society could now have more money, to better their lives.
      Society was affected as today the Caribbean culture is one where farming is very common. Many people today in islands such as Tobago and places like Guyana, people still have a small farm behind their house, where they grow their own fruits and vegetables and rear their own foul.
      Moreover, through the growth of the agricultural division, exporting became common and Caribbean islands became large exporters of agricultural products such as cocoa and spices, along with their own natural resources such as natural gas and oil. This contributed to economic diversification.
      However, many Caribbean economies are in trouble because some islands were unable to develop their market efficiently. Haiti for example, due to plantations, is unable to have a thriving market because of the exhausting of it's natural resources. As compared to islands that were able to truly develop because of an economic advantage. Such as Barbados, which put its main focus into its tourism industry and Grenada which makes a lot of its yearly income by exporting nutmeg.

      Ryan West
      812002338

      Delete
  9. Caribbean Agriculture and society and economic diversification were greatly influenced but peasantry. Peasantry in the Caribbean dates back to 1838. Peasantry is a combination of the cultivation of a variety of goods and the raising of a variety of animals on small pieces of property without the aid of hired help and largely for subsistence purposes. In 1988, Brierly and Ruben described peasants as economically deprived people at the lower strata off society.
    Peasants existed on the crevices of society, any area where the main economic activities of the Europeans did not have control. The peasantry existed in opposition to and in competition with the plantation despite their interdependence. Caribbean peasantries incorporated non-agricultural activities such as fishing, shop keeping, and casual estate work. They were always involved the production of some goods for sale in local markets.
    Slave farms on the plantation Significance and contribution of the peasantry to Caribbean society – “Emancipation in Action” , this enhanced money and time management skills of slaves and later ex-slaves, engendered self-reliance, planning and political awareness among ex-slaves. It also maintained social and economic stability in rural and non-plantation areas via attempts to build self-generating communities, villages, churches, schools etc. It softens the rigid class divisions that existed culturally, and brought about new and renewed cuisines, artistry and artisanship.
    Today quite a few Caribbean Economies are in trouble because of poor backing and support from the Government of the countries for the small farmers. As a result less people are farming because they don’t have to necessary funding to start and maintain and it isn’t easy to get the funds from banks.

    www.slideshare.net/aubynjm/independent-peasantry-caribbean-studies

    SEATONIA BLACKMAN
    812117429

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  10. The peasantry did contribute vastly to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic development. The peasantry began around 1838 after emancipation and existed alongside the plantation. Peasants occupied land near the estates and occasionally on mountains. They engaged in cash crops and their main focus was on subsistence agriculture. Extra produce was sold locally through markets and along roadsides. Peasants contributed to agricultural diversification by making the jump from mono-crop agriculture to multi-crop agriculture. Also, unlike the plantation, peasant also engaged in livestock production. They introduced new crops such as citrus in Jamaica, spices in the Windward Islands and reintroduced old ones. The planters adopted many crops however all were not successful. Peasants contributed to economic development by being part time farmers and wage earners. They occupied jobs fishing, in shops and using their artistic skills. This can still be seen today for example some farmers have jobs with the city council as well. Peasants not only contributed to agricultural and economic development but social development as well. This was seen through their attempts to build self generating communities through cooperative movements.
    Many Caribbean economies are in trouble. Regardless of having the same evolution, it must be remembered that different countries have different resources. Therefore with the discovery of new resources for example oil in Trinidad there would be a shift from agriculture to more industrial jobs thus affecting agriculture. Also with a decrease in land fertility the productivity of the land would decrease hence affecting the yield. Most Caribbean countries still rely heavily on agriculture as their main economic provider. However there are many crop diseases which can severely affect crop yield such as the black pod disease in cocoa and black sigatoga, a banana disease.

    Name: Renelle Sankar
    ID No.: 811000438

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  11. The role of peasantry has vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification. In today’s society many people still plant in small pieces of land on daily bases in order to make a living as they did back then. When these crops are planted and grown, some are kept for the planter’s personal use and the rest of it is sold in the market. In today’s generation most people still farm but they do it part time meaning they work in offices and part take in farming part time although some of the methods have change from back then to now for example more advance technology which gets farming done faster than traditional methods Caribbean society is greatly influence by peasantry, though, their culture, custom, their way of living, and food is still alive and practice today in the Caribbean. Economical it has benefitted the Caribbean and Trinidad for instance due to instead of importing a lot of agriculture food products from aboard most of it is grow in and sold in Trinidad therefore cheaper for customers.
    Caribbean countries share the same evolution but each economy is different from each other .economies are in trouble because all islands do not contain the same resource as the others and not all economies have resources to last them for future years to come for example Trinidad has many resources it can fall back on if its agriculture economy fail such as tourism, oil and gas production whereas do not have anything to fall back or rely

    Name Andrea Gosine
    ID # 812001885

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  12. Overall, peasantry which was almost exceptionally close to slavery had some good effect on the Caribbean economies in many ways. Peasantry brought new methods of agriculture which may have proved successful, also the peasants brought a variety of different crops such as yam, cassava, potato. Peasantry had a significant effect on the society on the whole as well. They brought a number of different clothing, music and their lifestyle as well which can be seen throughout the Caribbean to this present day. Our patterns of lifestyle date right back to the days of ole with the peasants, our language, our settlement patterns all have been due to the peasantry. Also the peasants proved in the economic diversification of many Caribbean countries, this was due to how hard of a worker those peasants were. They single handedly planted and reaped these crop an then the next stage after this was export which was the main reason of diversifying the economies.
    Although most Caribbean countries were influenced by peasantry, currently in these countries the wealth is shared very unequally. One main reason for this is the settlement patterns of these peasants after they were freed. It had a profound effect on some Caribbean countries. Both positively and negatively. Many of these lands the peasants chose to settle on were hilly and would prove to be insufficient if agriculture were to be their main motive of subsistence and income in the future. But there were some countries that were better off as well, let us take Trinidad for instance, sugarcane was their main income then came the introduction of oil which boosted this countries overall GDP. Hence though all countries obtained the same evolution, due to a number of other factors some countries did exceptionally better than others.
    Joshua Dhanpaul
    812001979

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  13. This is factual to a immense extent as a outcome of peasantry we now have a certain type of agriculture being prominent as the majority of modern farms are small scale and produce cash crops. There still exists some plantation type agriculture for example sugar cane in Guyana. Due to the evolution of the peasantry economies have become somewhat diversified as not only was the plantation crop being exported, the peasantry generated a local market of consumable crops on a smaller scale but the range of crops and products derived from such was diverse in that multiple crops were grown and traded.
    The establishment of peasantry also influenced social life in the Caribbean. The values and norms that were practiced by peasants is still common all over the Caribbean. Values and norms such as being helpful, community love and respect for elders can still be seen today. Also, community institutions such as churches and schools were established by these peasants. They also established societies such as the Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago and the Jamaican Agricultural Society which are still functioning even to this day.
    However, quite a few Caribbean Economies are in trouble because of poor backing and support from the Government of the countries for the small farmers. As a result less people are farming because they don’t have to necessary funding to start and maintain and it isn’t easy to get the funds from banks. The countries which seem to be better off are countries which have natural resources to rely on and countries which have a strong Tourism industry.

    ID #:811004348
    Sanjay Maharaj

    ReplyDelete
  14. It is true that the role of peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification. This has resulted in the type of farms and agricultural practices we have today, where most modern farms are small scale and produce cash crops. This occurred due to the peasants after being freed from the plantation, migrating to hills and flat lands or a location nearest to a supply of water. Fragmentation led to the small scale farming we have now and the different agricultural practices which were practiced by the different cultures of people from the peasantry were passed down from generation to generation resulting in some of the farming practices and methods we do presently.
    The peasantry consisted of ex-slaves of different cultures. This meaning that they all passed down different cultural practices such as religions, languages, clothes, foods and more, leading to a more diverse and multicultural society. With all these different agricultural activities practiced by the different peasants, this results in economic diversification, due to the fact that in modern times agriculture is increasingly becoming more and more important in society. Some countries are dependent on their major export goods example bananas and coffee. So in a way you can be very thankful of the peasantry for the various things the Caribbean has inherited from it.
    Despite all these heritages, the Caribbean economies do has its troubles. Well at least some more than others. The question is, if all Caribbean countries went through the same evolution, why are some better off than others? This is simple. Each country has their resources. Some more than others. For example, Trinidad has oil while Grenada does not. This puts Trinidad in a much better position than Grenada in terms of economic perspective. Countries without major resources must now resort to other means to acquire a sustainable economy leaving them in a much more troublesome state.

    ID: 812003015
    Richard Yuen

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  15. The role of Peasantry has vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification in significant ways. Agriculture in the Caribbean traditionally has been the major source of export earnings since the colonial days where the West Indies, mainly the British Colonies were used as "farms" for the crown and other parts of continental Europe. Predominantly Sugar, Tobacco, Bananas and cotton dominated West Indian Exports and was chartered mainly to fuel the booming manufacturing and processing sectors of in Europe during the industrial revolution. As a result agriculture in the West Indies were used as a means of generating huge revenue for the dependent territories as "cash crops" were the main source of exports. Cash Crops such as Sugar, Tobacco and Cotton were produced on large estates and accounted for almost all of the cultivated harvest in the territories.
    As a result mono cultivation took place which basically was the production of one single crop on a large scale without rotation year round. It was due to this practice the Caribbean region suffered from food shortages and starvation on a regular basis and the crown government acted by encouraging pheasant farmers who were not engaged in “cash crop” products to produce food items. As a result a growing number of the population engaged in peasant farming growing, consuming and sometimes selling their own produce. Farmers cultivated yam, cassava, maize, bananas, cocoa and coffee on both a domestic and business scale and eventually were able to export some of these goods. As a result items such as bananas and cocoa comprised the foundation of small island economies which can be seen today as well in islands such as Grenada, st Vincent, st Lucia etc. Larger islands used Peasant farms for food but it failed in Trinidad, Cuba and Jamaica

    Rajiv Rajaram
    ID# 810002650

    ReplyDelete
  16. The role of peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification, this statement is true to an extent .In 1838, slavery was abolished and there was an economic switch from the plantation to Peasantry. The slaves were given relatively infertile land and peasantry was basically their only option. They grew what they could such as cassava and since it was an indicator of nutrient deficient soil it grew well in the infertile lands they owned. Agricultural practices were somewhat improved because of peasantry as well as, Crop diversification and expansion which also began here; first with small scale with simple cash crops being produced such as yams, cassava for subsistence then it started expanding with the growing new crops such as Cocoa and Coffee as well as the old such as sugar .These crops were for export ,contributed to GDP and the economy and this set the stage for future large scale farming as well as setting the stage for the survival of agriculture in the future. Peasantry contributed to the social development of the Caribbean also by the founding of values and norms which early peasants practiced that are still apart of Caribbean culture today.
    Yes all Caribbean countries shared the same evolution, but the countries that are in trouble economically are the countries that Peasantry is still the largest employer. In countries such as Haiti and Guyana, Peasantry reigns, so do poverty, illiteracy and underdevelopment. In contrast look at Caribbean countries that are thriving, the following are synonymous, Peasantry is minimal, and a good rate of development and most importantly the existence of downstream sectors that garner some if not most of the GDP and GNP as is the case in Trinidad and Tobago and their Oil Sector and Jamaica with their Bauxite. With these sectors in place there is always a backup in case natural disaster occurs such as a hurricane, so the economy can survive. If none of this is in place and peasantry and agriculture are the greatest GDP generators, natural disasters can decimate economies as was the case with Grenada (spices) in 2004 when hurricane Ivan almost completely destroyed their agriculture sector, to this day they have not recovered.

    Erik Ranoo,
    I.D:812003827.

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  17. Peasantry has played a major role in the development of the Caribbean region; today is responsible for the creation of many institutions that have shaped our society today. During the period of consolidation which began from 1860 to 1900, there was a rapid increase in the number of peasant farmers who occupied hill sides, mountains and uncultivated plantation land. In 1930 there were 31,038 peasants occupying 49 acres of land. They introduced crops such as cocoa, lime, orange, and banana. These crops were later adopted by the plantations. They collectively contributed to the exports of their various countries; the peasants in Jamaica contributed 23% of exports for the period 1890. This practice was common in the all the Caribbean islands. For example, in Grenada cocoa was grown, while sugar was produced in Trinidad by peasants by 1898. With this significant cash flow the peasants founded villages and markets; they built churches, schools, and clamored for extension of educational facilities. They also formed informal co-operatives. A great example of this is the People’s Co-operative loan Bank of Jamaica. These developments are the corner stone of our development.
    The various economies of the Caribbean island varied from country to country. Windward island countries are plantation economies and are very dependent on agricultural exports. These economies are in big trouble. For instance in Dominica, the presence of black sitagtoka can destroy its banana sector, additionally damages from hurricanes destroys crops, and the loss of preferential treatment in Europe which will lead to a loss of markets, will have negatively impact on the economy of the country. Other countries are not as dependant on agricultural exports, for example Trinidad exports oil, Antigua and Barbados depends on tourism, hence their economies are not in trouble compared to the Windward Islands.

    Mitch Jno Charles
    312003707
    ref.Woodville K. Marshall, P. I. Gomes.Peasant Development in the West Indies Since 1838

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  18. To begin, the role of the peasantry have certainly contributed to the development of Caribbean Agriculture, society and economic diversification. This is true since most of the practices that are being carried out today are somehow linked to what was practiced during the plantation era; agriculturally and economically wise. After emancipation when peasants occupied land, they produced a great quantity of crops and livestock for subsistence. They introduced as well as reintroduced diversified crops like bananas, cocoa, coffee, cotton, arrowroot, spices and pimento. This variety of crops proved profitable to some Caribbean islands for exportation while some such as Jamaica didn’t succeed due to banana diseases such as the ‘black siga toga’ and ‘moko’ leaf diseases which destroyed the economy, hence the reason for stagnant economic growth in that nation. Many countries had natural resources which help to boom their economy while others lacked resources. Presently, in Guyana, there is large exportations which is the reason for secure existence; Guyana exports sugar throughout the world due to the large sugar estates which was established firstly by peasants. The Norman Commissions made recommendations for the peasantry, but most of the crops were already being cultivated hence it didn’t make difference to the economy. “The peasant activity in Friendly and Benefit societies, in the Jamaica Agricultural Society and in the People’s Cooperative Loan Bank of Jamaica” (WOODVILLE K MARSHALL 1985); these banks were established to financially aid peasants in times of natural disasters and today, it financially help farmers to succeed.
    Lastly, peasants founded villages, markets, schools, and churches and even bought land to lay down drainage systems (WOODVILLE K MARSHALL 1985). All these are proof that they have contributed vastly to the West Indian society because up till this date it is still being utilized efficiently.

    STEPHANIE JAGDEO
    812001988

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  19. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  20. After Emancipation most whites left the Caribbean and went back to their native lands. Many plantation owners subdivided their large estates into smaller parcels which were bought by freed slaves – those at the lowest level of the Plantation system i.e. the Peasants.
    In the period of consolidation a shift was made from provision to mixed production (e.g. Cocoa, spices and banana) enabling farmers who developed themselves from the plantation era to earn revenue from exports eventually leading to direct investments and economic spread in the Caribbean Islands. This led to Caribbean nations being able to build their economies and form stable monetary funds which meant the governments could invest in other forms of industry besides agriculture –i.e. economic diversification.
    Though the Caribbean nations shared the same economic evolution from agriculture, social and geographic differences ensured different levels of economic advancement .Many Island introduced agricultural education into primary and secondary level education, after the recommendation of the West Indian Royal Commission (the Norman Commission) of 1897 that placed emphasis on agricultural education in the West Indies.
    For Example in Trinidad this led to the development of agricultural institutions such as: Agricultural Society of Trinidad and Tobago (1894), Imperial Department of Agriculture (1898) and the Department of Agriculture (1908).
    With the advent of geographic exploration came the discovery of natural resources - such as oil in Trinidad and Bauxite in Jamaica - which led to other large revenue earning industries being formed as opposed to some nations only depending on agriculture industry – such as sugar cane in Guyana – and other non-natural resource such as tourism – St. Lucia, Barbados.
    Natural Disasters which plague some islands (such as hurricanes in the Leewards) also make it difficult for economic progress from agriculture as farmers must continuously re-build their estates after part or even total destruction.
    The Young Colonials-A Social History of Education in Trinidad and Tobago 1834-1939; Carl C. Campbell
    Sunil Ramnarine
    Student #:811002091

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  21. The role of the peasantry did contribute to the Caribbean agriculture, in a way where they allowed diversity and variety of crops. They did this by introducing new and reintroducing old crops to some islands like the Windward Islands and Jamaica. Therefore these countries had a greater variety of crops to trade. The peasantry improved the variety and quantity of subsistence farming so that farmers could have greater benefits and sales. The peasantry has also greatly contributed to the society diversification, in which it has founded their own villages and communities, also educational facilities such as schools and churches. They have become their own independent community. The smarter persons among them, who were capable of reading and writing acted as the teachers in the schools and the preachers in the churches. When the students graduate from the schools, the smartest ones among them could’ve become the next teachers in line. Today, some people are still like this. They grow up and study to become teachers, and they are very important in the educational system. The peasantry has contributed to the development of the economy. When new and old crops were introduced, they were exported to different countries, therefore, it widen the economy. However, even though the Caribbean countries share the same evolution, not all of them are doing well in their economies. This may be a result of the quantity of goods demanded to be imported by the country being affected by the price of the goods. This means there may be problems in getting import priced to the level the economy can afford. There may also be problems in obtaining the desired prices for their exported goods. These goods maybe taxed abroad by the countries in which they are sold.
    CANDY CELESTINE
    812000003

    ReplyDelete
  22. The role of peasantry vastly contributed to a relatively large extent to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification.
    Since cultivation of crops occurred on hillsides, farmers are limited to the use of simple equipments such as hoes and forks. Production is usually low and work is tedious and time consuming. Agriculture also has a negative stigma due to it being associated with poverty and lack of education. As stated by the CARICOM Commission in 2010, agriculture in the region is vital for food security, yet there is an alarming trend that shows the average farmer to be between the ages of 65-70. Additionally, factors such as race and class were used to restrict mobility during the plantation era; therefore there was limited communication amongst Ex-slaves and East Indian framers. This can be seen today in lack of collaboration between farmers; for example in Guyana where Indians are predominately rice farmers in comparison to Africans due to racial and social issues.
    Capital resources provided by the plantation system were no longer available; therefore, the Ex-slaves started practicing mixed cropping as means of sustaining their families and for market sales. In Haiti, the continuous practice of slash and burn created barren land and major soil erosion. This is due to the lack of proper planning, financial advising etc since farming is said to attract unemployed and uneducated people.
    On the positive side, the plantation system provided labor for large amounts of unskilled workers, and new crops such as cotton and bananas. Mono-cropping is still being practiced b some countries. It contributes largely to the Gross Domestic Profit. For example in Grenada, nutmeg was introduced in 1498 as a plantation crop and Grenada today is the second largest producer of nutmeg.
    The Windward Islands (WIs) were receiving preferential treatment from the EU for their banana produce. The survival of the WIs depended on this preferential treatment. However, the WTO in 2001 ruled in favor of a US complaint against the EU regime to stop the preferential treatment. Latin America then put the WIs “out of bread” since they can produce their bananas at low costs and produce high yields. The elimination of preferential treatment for these countries caused economic hardship. Other countries found alternative methods and are therefore better off today. For example; oil in Trinidad and Bauxite in Jamaica.
    References
    http://culturalshifts.com, 1st May 2008
    CARICOM Commission, 2010
    Kemisha S Williams
    812002858

    ReplyDelete
  23. The Caribbean has undergone many trials and tribulations from the plantation system. However after the plantation system came the peasantry system where the people farmed on small pieces of land an did other jobs during the day to bring in an income such jobs were fisheries, carpenters, artisans and taxi drivers. However this system affected the person in two ways whereby there was competition for land and other resources but these lands were marginal. Another problem is that they only produce certain things and things which were not produced would have to be bought elsewhere. This type of farming could still be seen today where people carry out jobs such as CEPEP and URP which finishes about 9:30 am and then they go to work on their land. The lands obtained by the peasants were all of poor quality this is referred to as marginal land. In today’s society even though this type of farming is still practiced some Caribbean countries do not solely rely on farming to bring in revenue to the country. Example places such as St. Vincent and St. Lucia, who depend solely on the bananas to bring in a source of foreign exchange, have great difficulty in present day reason being that the World Trade Organization is trying to remove the preferential status on these countries. If this status is removed it means that the buyers such as Dole could buy there bananas from anywhere in the world which would leave the Caribbean to suffer as the banana boats may never come again. Another problem is that sometimes these countries suffer the impact of natural disasters which destroy their crops would have difficulty in trading. Whereas countries such as Trinidad have moved away from agriculture and now produces oil which most of the world buys at a rate where it is profitable as compared to that of the banana planters who almost make a loss every time they are finished selling. The peasantry system has impacted the Caribbean people both negatively an positively whereby it may bring in an extra source of income to a household but to the economy it may not do anything and they may still have to buy other produce or import it from elsewhere.

    Younge, Gary. “Green Gold Loses out to ‘Dollar Bananas’.” The Guardian. np., 20 April 1991. Web. 12 Sep. 2012 812001217
    Shinace A. Baboolal

    ReplyDelete
  24. Yes it is true that the role of the peasantry has definitely contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture society and economic diversification. As result of peasantry there was a shift from the plantation system and the production of sugarcane to small scale farming and the production of “cash crops.” Due to economies becoming more diverse, not only was the exportation of sugarcane being made but also the trading of cash crops and selling of them to the local markets were done.
    The evolution of peasantry has influenced the Caribbean society by introducing their values and norms. They brought along a variety of clothing, foods, lifestyles and cultures some of which are still seen today in the Caribbean. Also our current settlement patterns and behaviors are also due to the peasantry.
    The role of peasantry serves to influence the development of Caribbean economic diversification through outlets such as peasant farming and cottage industry. These can impact significantly on the GDP, without being part of the major industries in Caribbean such as oil and gas or tourism. Although they share the evolution, some countries are still better off than others. This is due to the islands large natural resource. Countries such as Trinidad and Tobago are doing relatively well, but have the potential to increase their GDP vastly, through the cottage industry. The move away from large scale agriculture, namely sugar cane deters the Trinidadian people from becoming involved in any agriculture at all. This industry needs to be developed, however. If the government can encourage citizens to become involved in peasant farming as well as simple home businesses or cottage industries that make use of the goods such as pepper sauce, for example, the GDP of the country can be increased by a significant amount, while diversifying the economy.
    In closing, it can be seen that although the Caribbean share an evolution, some countries utilizes it more to improve their economy.

    Rene Ramlal
    812001560

    ReplyDelete
  25. After emancipation, the ex-slaves or peasants began planting crops on small pieces of land, may it be marginal land or illegally occupied land. They existed as an opposition to and in competition with plantations. Through this, they developed other means of generating income such as fisheries, shop keeping, casual estate work etc. With respect to the development of Caribbean agriculture, peasants developed and enhanced their own cultivation skills and soil management systems and engaged in agricultural diversification owing to small land sizes.
    Socially, peasant farming has had a lot of positive feedbacks. Peasant’s income was enhanced along with their time management skills, for example, a slave could work casually on the plantation while growing his own produce to sell in the market. Peasants and ex-slaves developed a sense of self reliance and the ability to plan and engineer new ways to cultivate and when to cultivate certain crops such as seasonal crops. Peasants formed social networks so as to unite and interact with one another through churches, communities, villages and schools which also softened the rigid class divisions that may have existed. On an economic scale, peasants and slaves established local cooperatives.
    Some Caribbean territories have flourished and some have seen rapid decline owing to different local constraints and the import/export market. Guyana, for example, remains a top producer of rice and sugar while Belize is a major producer of maize, this is so because of government intervention and incentives. Trinidad and Tobago’s agriculture sector has been on a steady decline with emergence of the oil industry which evidentially fazed out Trinidad and Tobago as a sugar producing country. Haiti, owing to its harsh agriculture practices (slash and burn) can no longer produce or sustain any agriculture for local or foreign exchange.

    Marcus Hospedales
    809003622

    ref. http://www.eclac.org/portofspain/noticias/paginas/2/9792/issue19.pdf

    ReplyDelete
  26. After the abolishment of slavery in 1838 peasantry role contributed vastly in many areas. The plantation system which existed was changed to fit the peasants known lifestyle and culture which exist in modern society. Mono cropping shifted towards mix cropping due to land fragmentation, settlement pattern on marginal lands, lack of profitably and devastating pest and disease affecting crops .This also gave rise to ex-slaves putting their resources together purchasing large lands to improve cultural practices such as drainage and upgrading their communities; building schools example Trinidad Christian Missioner School. It also gave rise to co-cooperatives and trade unions example Marcus Garvey in Jamaica and justice for workers as in the case of Caricom. Peasants today can now practice part-time farming growing cash crops and work in other sectors allowing them to earn a wage to sustain their livelihood.
    Due to Montserrat volcanic activity it destroyed many crops and only a few land farming areas can be found limiting agriculture. Dominica, St. Lucia and Martinique however, are Windward Islands which were top banana producers. During the year 2007 Hurricane Dean had a devastating effect on the fields and economy resulting in major loss causing diversification into other crops and sectors. They also lost preferential European Union Markets. “WTO” along with a specific agreement (SPS-Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures) contributes to the restricting of produces within countries if Invasive pest and disease emerge; as in the case of Dominica August 2012 Ministry of Agriculture reported the introduction of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Banana field’s restricted trade to other islands. These small islands can’t compete with other islands with large market producing more top quality products and produces as a result their economy is low. Other islands divert into industrial establishments which accounts for their will developed economy because the agricultural sector was not profiting them. Barbados diverted into tourism and light industry. Trinidad into the production of oil and gas earning the highest per capital growth rate in the Caricom region .The large expansion of land also gave rise to more industries development, expansion of flat agricultural and usage of modernized equipments and technology increase productivity contributing to the high economy present compared to other islands.

    http://www.cardi.org/country-offices/trinidad-tobago/Dominica,
    http://www.caribbeanemagazine.com/2011/02/richest-caribbean-islands-for-2010.html- Bahamas
    http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/food/2007-08-18-banana-hurricane_N.htm
    Ministry of Agriculture -Dominica

    Nelsha U Shillingford
    812006504


    ReplyDelete
  27. The role of peasantry has played a major part with the development and diversification of Caribbean agriculture as it taught ex-slaves a various amount of skills to assist them with the learning of new cultivation skills and familiarizing themselves with trade. Crops such as bananas, cocoa, lime and oranges were planted to make revenue for the ex-slaves.
    Peasantry also brought together the slaves of different cultures, hence diversifying the culture of the Caribbean itself. Introducing new cuisines and combining the different artistry. Peasantry also planted a basis in which agriculturalists today have evolved.
    Each economy of each country is different, as each country has their own resources. Obviously some resources will be in higher demand than others such as Oil and Pitch from Trinidad and Tobago which is in high demand, as opposed to Bauxite in Jamaica which is not. Other economies such as Barbados' rely on tourism for income.
    The Caribbean economies are in trouble today due to many of them being agriculturally based. Over time soil and land degradation takes places from consistent farming of crops. Hence leading to crops of poor quality. If a Caribbean country solely depends on agricultural exports for their income they may need to resort to other ways of receiving revenue.

    Matthew Chung
    812002589

    ReplyDelete
  28. The statement ‘The role of the peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification,’ is true because the plantation system was sugarcane dominated, so peasantry did allow Caribbean agriculture to diversify. Following, the slaves freedom they did not have enough machinery and was not able to compete with the plantations, hence, they introduced new crops and re-introduced old ones, such crops were bananas, spices, coffee and arrowroot and many others.
    Some of the ex-slaves engaged in subsistence farming while others planted cash crops of which families in today’s society still practice. Although, there were a variety of other crops, the banana and cocoa industry managed to develop at a faster pace causing the countries that grew them to grow economically faster than the other islands because of the need for those crops worldwide. In terms, of the development of the society acculturation occurred where different groups learned each others’ beliefs and practices of which it is called cultural retention, for example, the different religions and the types of food is still a practice in the Caribbean and the ex-slaves even found schools, communities and churches.
    Some islands are better off today than others because peasantry developed at different paces in different islands causing the impact to be different. Furthermore, some islands had better available agricultural land, for instance, Trinidad and Jamaica had large pieces of land that was available for the ex-slaves which allowed more crops of the same kind to be planted and sold allowing them to develop economically faster than other islands. Moreover, in some islands, the large amounts of ex-slaves outsized the land causing the pieces of marginal land per ex-slave smaller than other islands.
    In closing, islands went through the same general evolution but the rate and steps at which they evolved differs.

    Kishauna George
    812000237

    ReplyDelete
  29. Pasantry vastly contributed to the development of caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification. After emancipation which was in the year 1838 Peasants occupied pieces of land which was in the period of establishment. They either occupied land, illegal occupation or they got marginal lands which was of poor quality. There was a system of tenancy where these peasants received lands to farm on estates but there was no ownership rites to these lands.
    As the years go by peasants passed on their lands [ which did not have title] to the younger generation who also did not have land title. They all grew cash crops sucessfully in these lands but they did not have ownership rites. This is why today people for example in Trinidad are occupying pieces of land or the land in which they are living in do not have title.
    The peasants contributed to the development of the caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification in that they introduced and reintroduced food into the caribbean countries. Crops like cassava, dasheen, yams and so on were originally from the descendents lands. Also marginal parts of animals like tails of pigs and ears, cow tongue, goat head an so on was eaten and as time went on these tings remained with us today, which was from our history. Today people import these tings example salted beef and pig tail. So the peasants contributed towards the food that we still eat today.
    Natural resources were also found in caribbean countries such as oil in Trinidad, Bauxite in Jamaica which leds to large revenue earning industries such as oil industries being formed as opposed to some nations only depending on agriculture industry such as sugar in Guyana.
    Also natural disasters made it difficult for some caribbean countries to have economic progress especially where caribbean countries depend on agriculture for a living ,farmers continuously have to rebuild their plantation estates.
    Referances-http://www.caribbeanagri.blogspot.com
    - Woodville K. Marshall, P.I. Gomes.Peasant
    Development in the West Indies[1838]
    Fadil Khan
    812000108

    ReplyDelete
  30. Peasantry have contributed vastly to Caribbean Agriculture, society and economic diversification in various ways, this is so because this has resulted in the signs of development in our present society. It began with the peasant farmers being the group of persons who built schools, shops and churches, they even established a bank. Another main contribution would be that they reinforced export trade, bringing in capital and strengthening the economy. The peasant farmers introduced or were the first to practice diversification, moving away from monoculture, instead they planted a variety of crops, not only sugarcane. They cultivated crops such as: bananas, coffee, cocoa, citrus and coconuts. Basically peasants initiated the conversion from the plantation society to modern society.
    Despite these contributions, economies of many countries are in trouble or some doing better than others, the major reason for this would be that peasantry developed at a different pace in different countries. Another underlying reason would be that peasant farmers were limited in terms of resources for fighting against diseases, the destruction of crops and loss in profits slowed down the development. The neglect from the government is also a factor as to why in some countries peasantry is not as developed and hence it cannot assist in economic growth. Ownership of lands were also an issue for peasant farmers as they “squatted” , arising also would be that the choice of lands were mainly on the Hillsides , because the ex- slaves wanted to be far away from the plantation life , these lands were either not appropriate to farm on or eventually became exhausted , eventually slowing down economic growth, additionally reinforcing this point would also be that some countries such as Trinidad and Jamaica had lands that favoured the work of the peasants farmers .

    Shantal Mahase
    811003716

    ReplyDelete
  31. Peasantry has contributed greatly to the development of the Caribbean agricultural economy today. I believe it has brought with it specialization of agricultural crops, investments in educational opportunities, increased international trade, educational, technological and industrialized advancement, and improvements in the overall infrastructure of many Caribbean countries. These advancements in agricultural production was brought about as a result of the world’s growing population and demand for food[1], competition among Caribbean countries producing one crop[2], and the need to manage and prevent of pests and diseases from attacking the industry[3]. Resulting from these developments, many countries were able to sustain themselves as they provide all the necessary foods for a healthy diet, but for others, a constant struggle.

    The Caribbean countries have all suffered the same fate of the plantation economies enforced by the Europeans. As time went by many of them have reduced or eliminated agriculture as their major income earning sector and have switched to others such as services (e.g. tourism in the Bahamas and Barbados) and industries (e.g. bauxite in Jamaica and natural gas in Trinidad). Some countries still uses the agriculture sector e.g. cocoa production in Trinidad and Tobago, which gives them the advantage over the other Caribbean countries who do not own other resources that are in demand.

    Less developed Caribbean are kept down further as they have to use the little foreign exchange they have earned from agricultural exports to purchase other needed supplies such as rice from the already developed countries, thus running them into major trade deficits. Another restraint of the less developed is the failure of others to recognize them for training and education[4].




    [1] According to U.S. News, 7 billion people is a 'serious challenge',
    United Press International, Inc., Oct. 31, 2011- Report of the baby bringing the world population to 7 billion in the while 1 billion goes to bed hungry every night.

    [2] Examples of countries producing cocoa are Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago, St Lucia, St Vincent, Dominica and Grenada.
    [3] Such included cultural practices like crop rotation, mixed cropping, mulching, use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides, etc.
    [4] e.g. the ‘Eric Williams Memorial Scholarship’ offered to CARICOM countries providing they have a first degree pursuing research in either Caribbean History, Caribbean Economic Development or Caribbean Politics. My question is ‘Where does that live Grenada?’ when only about <1.7% of its population has a degree. This only gives the developed countries the advantage.


    Rena Noel
    812003288

    ReplyDelete
  32. The role of peasantry has encouraged economic diversification in that new crops were introduced in large quantity apart from subsistence food and livestock. The only phenomenal link that can be established between the present day peasantry and the 1838 period is the activity of slaves producing their own food. Slaves were partly peasant cultivators after emancipation. The exslaves indulged in small farms allowing their subsistence nature to grow. It is inevitable that the peasantry since 1838 diversified the monocultural sugar cane cultivation into a variety of products, as well as it contributed to society.
    Caribbean countries economies are in debt because of various reasons- the after effects of recession, insularity amongst countries that leads to hostility and geography and topography. Inflation of food prices creates a stand in imports and exports. Also the American influence in that food is always being exported from the US and local markets are forgotten. In addition the exslaves focused primarily on farming, however with the industrial revolution and the new countries, work is not agricultural in origin, it is mainly on factories and commerce. Hence our local economy in terms of agriculture is not being taken care off and that explains our agriculture today. We have to distinguish the fact that the archipelago of countries had insularity and is different in geography. This facilitates differences in the economy. For example, Trinidad ant Tobago is well known for its oil and sugar but Jamaica has a higher agricultural yield hence their large prominence in banana. Also Guyana is known for bauxite. It can be concluded that peasantry has encouraged economic development and diversification because of a shift from small scale farming to the production of subsistence farming.


    NAME: SAMANTHA PALADEE
    STUDENT ID: 812001263

    ReplyDelete
  33. Cly-Donna Bramble 81200573030 September 2012 at 12:54

    The statement on the role of peasantry is true. Peasantry was where the slaves illegally occupied lands wherever they could or worked on plantations for money beginning sometime in 1838. They not only cultivated farms, they worked part time in non-agricultural activities. In the area of agriculture, it can still be seen that farmers work on small pieces of land without the aid of hired workers. Socially, peasantry was able to change how the class system was. The rigidity of it was changed in that the mobility to move upwards was easier. Economically, the slaves learnt how to handle their own land/crops to be sold and exported; they learnt how to better manage the soil and how to cultivate the land. Therefore they no longer depended on the Europeans to get an income.
    The WTO used to offer a preferential treatment to the Windward Islands until America brought the matter to the WTO saying it was unfair that the Windward Islands got this treatment. Presently, the Windward Islands have to compete with the Latin America’s dollar banana and so they are at a disadvantage. Also, some countries are better off than others because they found other natural resources to depend on. For example, Trinidad can depend on oil and Jamaica can depend on bauxite/aluminum. Though Guyana has natural resources such as sugar, rice, bauxite and gold at its disposal, the government does operate properly and so the economy is not as well as it should be. In addition, natural disasters affect more places than others, for example, Hurricane Tomas hit SVG, St. Lucia and Dominica in 2010 and they are still recovering from the blowing down of their banana trees, which is the main crop they cultivate to export. Lastly, some countries are bigger than others. Comparing Trinidad and St. Vincent, while Trinidad can use acres and acres of land to dedicate to different crops, using machinery and other new age technology, St. Vincent is much smaller and cannot produce as much as Trinidad. These are some of the issues I believe causes some islands to be poorer than others.

    http://www.slideshare.net/aubynjm/independent-peasantry-caribbean-studies
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Guyana
    http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2010/dec/23/windward-islands-caribbean-farmers-bananas

    ReplyDelete
  34. Peasantry have definitely contributed significantly to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification. The statement is definitely true as peasants have introduced new crops and have thus changed the monocultural pattern of agriculture in the region, by producing varieties of subsistence food and livestock. Peasantry have also lead o a shortage of agricultural land as it continued to expand.
    Peasants have also encouraged the expansion of production possibilities in the region, as the plantation staple economy is being mixed with elements of peasant subsistence economy and there is a possibility that this does not impact drastically on the economy. The production of cash crops as well, by peasants ensures food security
    Socially, peasants have also impacted by the converting the plantation territories into modern societies. They also founded villages and markets and started the local co- operative movement. Eventually, by the pooling of resources of the ex- slaves churches and schools were built, Banks were also established to help the peasants financially, example of such bank was the People’s co-operative loans bank of Jamaica.
    Some Caribbean economies were more successful than others because some countries not all the main export crops were successful: cocoa, spices, bananas, log wood and arrow root, since some were susceptible to diseases, for example banana was attacked mainly by- black sigatoga and cocoa by black pod and witches broom and in Jamaica peasant coffee was of poor quality. Because the peasants lacked capital and education it was difficult to eradicate or treat the attack of these diseases and hence affected the economies of such countries.



    Anesha Sharma
    811001491

    ReplyDelete
  35. Peasantry farming has influenced Caribbean Agricultural development along with society and economic diversification. However, the lands obtained by the ex-enslaved Africans were on the periphery of the plantation, on old abandoned plantations and as far as the hill sides. Those who settled on these were at a great disadvantage because the land had already been exhausted of its nutrition content.
    Before the abolition of slavery in 1838, the enslaved Africans were forced to engage in the mono-crop production of sugar cane in vast plantation colonies around the Caribbean. However, after they were freed they introduced new crops like cassava and potatoes for self sustenance and also to sell in the market. Some of the newly introduced crops included banana, coffee, citrus, coconuts, cocoa, arrowroot and species. These were the main export crops after 1850.
    The peasantry farmers, with time, converted into a more modernised society and attempted to build a local self governing community. Various social institutions were built in order to enhance social diversification.
    Economic diversification, however, had proven to be difficult over the years. Countries that rely on certain crops for their main national revenue were limited. The land is a major factor affecting this, for example, Haiti’s hill sides are eroded beyond repair because of poor farming practices done by the emancipated Africans. Economic diversification is a dream to them because they are crippled by poverty and have no choice but to import most of their goods from abroad.
    Trinidad and Tobago is fortunate enough to own the natural resources, oil and gas, which is mined locally and exported regionally and beyond. Tobago’s tourist industry is also a major factor affecting economic diversification.
    Some countries are doing better than others despite their similar history but none of these is without social and economical problems associated with agricultural development and diversity.

    Maria Joseph
    812001783

    ReplyDelete
  36. The role of the peasantry system massively contributed to the development of Caribbean society, agriculture and economic expansion. After the abolition of slavery in 1838, the new immigrants further pluralized the culture, the economy and the societies. Emancipation of the slaves provided the catalyst for the rise of a dynamic peasantry throughout the Caribbean. A large proportion of the ex-slaves settled in free villages, often forming cooperatives to buy bankrupt or abandoned sugar estates forming the Jamaican Agricultural society and the people’s cooperative loan bank of Jamaica. Where they lacked the capital, they simply squatted on vacant lands and continued the cultivation of many food crops that the planters had exported during the days of slavery. The East Indians introduced rice and boosted the local production of cacao (the bean from which cocoa is derived) and ground provisions (tubers, fruits, and vegetables).
    Guyana, Trinidad and Jamaica did better in terms of agricultural diversification through the pooling of resources by large numbers of ex-slaves whom group their capital together to acquire more land to build churches and schools. With the expansion of economical and agricultural sectors a few years later they would then able to establish banks to encourage thrift and to provide the small farmer with loans on reasonable terms at the lowest possible interest rate.
    Negatively the lack of funding by the government pays no attention to the existence of the peasantry system and disregards the farmers to experiment with the different crops and techniques example the firestick agriculture.
    Natural disasters such as hurricanes caused the prices of the product, fertilization and the price of labour to increase. In 2005, hurricane Ivan led to major devastation in Grenada’s nutmeg crops which caused the supply of nutmeg from Grenada to be reduced.


    Vinai Chatee
    812117182

    ReplyDelete
  37. Yes the role of peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture society and economic diversification. Various peasantry on different island, situations and practices are accountable for what is currently seen in today’s development of our Caribbean agriculture society. Some were more fortunate to have more land available to them for farming .Like the bigger islands e.g. Trinidad, Jamaica and Guyana, so they had a greater room for economic growth .That accounts for the diversity in economies seen among other factors.
    The major economic problems facing some Caribbean economies are the dependence on mono-cropping agricultural production. Most of these island farm on small marginal lands. These exported goods can’t compete with large scale superior farming companies producing goods for the world trading market. Other regions may take long periods to recover from nature disasters such as hurricanes, flooding and some cases pest invasion. This is therefore a major lost in revenue and employment. High unemployment and under-employment caused by lack of industrial development. Under-development of domestic markets to spur domestic production. Over-consumption of imported, particularly US produced goods.
    Some islands that may be experiencing economic growth are usually islands that explore new and better sources of growth whether it may be diversifying their agriculture production. Venturing out into new avenue that will earn the island foreign revenues. There are those islands rich in natural resources such as oil and natural gas, bauxite, gold, asphalt etc. There are those governments that play a dominant role in employment, consumption and production helping to improve the citizen’s life hood and improve the islands general development. Islands have taken advantage for their paradise and made it into a tourist attraction where they have earned foreign revenue.

    1. International Monetary Fund http://www.imf.org/external/

    2. Beckford, G L. (1983). Persistent Poverty. Maroon Publishing House, Morant Bay, Jamaica.

    3. Gomes, P I (ed). Rural Development in the Caribbean. C Hurst & Co., London

    Mary-Ethel Gray
    812001927

    ReplyDelete
  38. It is evident that the role of the peasantry has contributed vastly to the development of Caribbean agriculture,society and economic diversification. One of the main functions of the agricultural extension was to educate farmers. Peasant activity produced a wide array of crops in vast quantities along with the rearing of livestock which reaped much economic benefit. A few of the reintroduced crops included cotton,bananas,arrow root,spices(nutmeg and cinnamon), and blue mountain coffee which is well known in Jamaica. These crops were grown on no more than 5 acres of land.
    As time progressed the peasantry attempted to delve into a more modern society where they constructed churches and schools which were beneficial to individuals in improving their communication and marketable skills. With these new skills attained through education they were now able to generate higher revenues. These advances in construction was made possible by the ex slaves working together and pooling together their resources to purchase land.
    Even though many Caribbean countries shared the same evolution some manage to be more economically stable than others. This may be due to richness and availability of resources in each country. Trinidad for example is rich in oil and natural gas and generates its revenue from export to other nations. Another contributing factor is tourism which appears to be the greatest selling point in the Caribbean as tourists are attracted to the warm climate and the sun,sea and sand. Such popular tourist destinations are the Bahamas Islands and Barbados. Natural disasters may also be considered as some countries are more susceptible than others to its effects based on the country's geographical location eg.the 2010 Haiti Earthquake.

    Vishal Boodoo
    812000246

    ReplyDelete
  39. It is a proven fact that peasantry was a major impact into the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification. Peasantry in the Caribbean started around 1838 which was the year of emancipation for the slaves. At this point the ex-slaves took up residence on the nearby marginal lands which was mostly hilly landscapes or on an abandoned plantation which they started up small farms. The ex-slaves did not have any legal papers for the ownership of the lands which would in turn make it hard for their descendants to get the rights to it. These peasants did not had much capital at the time, thus there type of farming was not highly mechanized. They resorted to planting different types of crops such as dasheen, coco and banana. This helped into the introduction and re-introduction of certain crops into the Caribbean which later lead to diversifying the agricultural society in the Caribbean.
    As the years passed by ,more and more peasants formed villages and communities of their own. Some of the names of these villages that the peasants build are still here today such as new village in Trinidad. The land with which the peasants occupied was passed down from generation to generation causing fragmentation to take place. This is whereby the land would be separated and distributed among the family members as the family grows making the land smaller and smaller. This is why in Trinidad you would see people living illegally on a small piece of land which was given to them by their parents.
    The reason why so many Caribbean economies are in trouble while a few seem to be doing better maybe because of political corruption, example Haiti. The few that seems to be doing better have natural resources that bring capital to them, example Trinidad has oil and Jamaica has bauxite.

    Kelton kissoon
    ID#812002145

    ReplyDelete
  40. In my opinion the role of peasantry has had an imperative contribution to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification.
    The type of farming the peasants utilized after slavery was subsistence farming which is still the dominant type of farming in the Caribbean today. They were responsible for introducing and re-introducing many crops which makes up an essential part of the diet of Caribbean people today. With the new crops it allowed countries in the Caribbean to go from monoculture societies to a more diverse and innovative form of agriculture.
    Although all the Caribbean countries experienced the same evolution there are certain key factors which has allowed some to thrive better than others. Some of the reasons were a country’s geographic location which made it prone to natural disasters which completely destroyed crops and livestock frequently. Also there is the emergence of many agricultural diseases such as Black Sigatoka Disease in bananas which has been known to decrease the production of bananas up to 50% in countries like Dominica. These factors coupled with the lost of preferential rights from the World Trade Organization (WTO) led to competition with fully mechanized multi-national companies which are able to produce more of the same goods at a lower cost. As a consequence local production of agricultural good has been completely crippled. Additionally one reason why some countries were able to thrive economically and others didn't were, certain countries for example Trinidad and Tobago were able to allocate revenue from natural resources such as oil and others made investments in tourism which has proven to be very profiting.

    Christian Seales
    ID#812004863

    ReplyDelete
  41. Peasantry started in 1838 (after emancipation). Peasantry consisted of ex-slaves who started small farm on wherever they could find land for subsistence purposes. The role of peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification. This statement is true to some extent.
    WI peasants exhibited some special characteristics:
    Recent in origin
    its growth was controlled .
    it existed alongside and in conflict with the plantation.
    did not depend exclusively on cultivation of the soil for its income and subsistence.
    Peasants often combined crop cultivation with activities such as fishing,shopkeeping, and causal estate work.
    Early peasantry started during slavery where, in order to increase the food supply, slaves were provided with plots of land for various cultivation. Practice varied according to the size of the territory and nature of the land. Example : Barbados could not afford to give up much land for growing whereas Jamaica could.
    The provision ground, however small gave the slave a bread basket of sorts; it also enabled them to practice their skills in subsistence agriculture and to learn the secrets of the new environment, the effects of the season. With times for planting different crops etc. From the sale of the provision ground, slaves had the opportunity to better themselves by receiving some cash ; this allowed them to feel independent even if it were for a short period of time.
    Peasantry was facilitated by the planters’ failure to maintain a unified opposition against the peasantry. Some planters were anxious to win advantage in the labour market, and these sold land to the ex-slaves in the hope that this would secure a labour force. Many planters were heavily indebted, and therefore welcomed the cash they received.
    Shereece Boodram
    812000735


    ReplyDelete
  42. Peasantry has definitely contributed to the development of the Caribbean in several aspects. It can be traced back to the emancipation of the slaves, when ex-slaves practiced subsistent farming with cash crops so support their family. These 1peasants joined together and formed villages, they also began to plant their own crops and sell them to the nearest market. They grew ginger, bananas and sugar cane amongst many other crops that were introduce and reintroduced into the Caribbean. Today, these crops are helping to bring in foreign revenue through export. Jamaica is such an island that is still profiting from the crops (e.g. bananas) which the peasants (ex-slaves) introduced/reintroduced.
    Over time the ex-slaves began to extend their villages and communities from the income earned through the sale of their crops at the local market. And with these extensions schools and churches began to go up; through this process the peasants directly affected the social development of the Caribbean through education and various religions. Ex-slaves sorted to education as the way to empower, bettering the next generation and further increase their standard of living because the jobs (teaching and ministers) they acquired was a step up from the ones at the plantation.
    Economically, the Caribbean islands have benefited from the peasants’ production of different crops which they introduced & or reintroduced, through exports. This initial movement away from the mono-cropping practices of the plantations proved beneficial to the economies which diversified their agricultural industry and further more earning foreign revenue. Although we supposedly share the same evolution there is evidence of some economies that are better off than others. This is could be due to some implications countries are going through, it could also be that there are a lack of natural resources. Some islands are hilly and this would make developing a productive plantation difficult and time and energy consuming making it inefficient and crops would have higher prices. Small islands would also have to compete with the larger ones for a market. There are also countries that don’t have to depend on its Agriculture Industry because they discovered other resources. E.g. Trinidad (Pitch Lake, natural gas and oil), Barbados (tourism), Jamaica (bauxite and alumina) and Cuba (oil) are naming a few.

    Duane Cockburn
    812001785

    ReplyDelete
  43. The peasantry has contributed to many aspects of the Caribbean such as, development of agriculture, society and economic diversification. In addition, due to the fact that the plantation workers came from various parts of the world from which they brought crops and different traditions which has diversified agriculture and local farming. These crops have also contributed to the international market, thus enhancing the economy. Society has been shaped based on the villages established by the peasants who worked together to form livable communities which lead to organizations such as the, “Jamaica agricultural society people’s cooperative bank of Jamaica.” Society has been fashioned based on the peasantry’s life style after emancipation where they developed a new livelihood. Hence, this has evolved our economic diversification where the main focus is not solely on agricultural production.
    The success of individual Caribbean countries and their economic statures do not follow the same production level, although they emerged from the same historical background. This may be based on the fact that some countries produced different crops which may have been more profitable than others, which gave that country an advantage, such as sugar cane in Trinidad. However, various factors affect different regions in different ways such as capital, weather, praedial larceny, availability of water, fertile land, machinery, pest and disease and labor. Although the economic state of one Caribbean country may also be based on employment, trade, food security, education level and natural resources (such as oil and pitch in Trinidad). Also, The University of West Indies can be located only one three Caribbean islands; Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica and Barbados, where the other islands are at a disadvantage as they have to travel to attain higher education.

    Phebe Ramayah
    811000694

    ReplyDelete
  44. Yes the role of peasantry has contributed towards the development of the Caribbean and society and economic diversification. A peasant is someone who is considered to be of no class or a poor farmer. Everyone can agree that peasantry goes way back to the days of slavery. After emancipation in 1838 these freed slaves found settlement on the hillside and on marginal lands. In order for them to survive they started to farm on small pieces of land. On the plantation where these ex slaves worked, practiced mono cropping, planting only sugar. These peasants as we call them decided to diversify their crops and started planting different crops for example, Guyana you have bananas, Trinidad you have cocoa and Jamaica you had cassava and lots more. Now in today’s society these crops are exported around the world. Foreigners pay lots of money to have these products exported to their countries.
    Most Caribbean economies are in trouble even though we share the same evolution. This maybe so because us as Caribbean people don’t take advantage of the crops that we have and we let foreigners use it to their advantage. Take Trinidad for example, we produce the sweetest cocoa in the world and yet we sell the cocoa next to nothing to buyers and they produce their products and sell it at the highest price. We all praise foreign products and not appreciate the local ones. Hence the reason for the economic trouble. If we continue like this, the economy is going to be worse off than it is.

    Farissa Salick
    812001056

    ReplyDelete
  45. Peasantry started in the period after Emancipation, 1838. Ex slaves started planting wherever they could have found land- on abandoned farms and plantations and mountainous areas. Peasants introduced the cultivating of cash crops such as beans, yams and cassava and moved the Caribbean from a monocrop society to a more diversified economy. In the 1870’s , the peasants had competition from the planters because they had started to plant and export crops like bananas, cocoa and coffee after the planters realised that it was more profitable to diversify the economy from sugar.
    Despite the fact that all Caribbean countries experienced similar evolution, some have experience development faster than others. This is largely due to the fact that many Caribbean countries have based their country solely on agricultural production and have not diversified their economy. With stiff competition from international producers and the Caribbean’s geographical location which makes us susceptible to natural disasters, many Caribbean nations have suffered greatly. One example of this is the banana industry in Jamaica. According to the documentary, Life and Debt, Jamaica once had a thriving industry until they lost their preferential trade agreement. In addition to this, in 2010, banana growers in St. Lucia and St. Vincent suffered severe losses due to natural disasters. As a result of this, it has crippled the economies of these affected countries.
    On the other hand, countries that have been more successful, like Trinidad and Tobago , has widen their horizon and have invested in areas such as tourism, oil and natural and gas and agriculture on a smaller scale. Diversification in other areas besides agriculture allows for a country to be stable because there isn’t one source of revenue.
    References
    1. S.Mintz, foreword to R.Guerra and Y.Sanchez, “Sugar and Society in the Caribbean”, Heaven, 1964, p.
    2. Life and Debt. Stephanie Black. Tuff Gong Pictures Production, 2001. Documentary
    Candace Gibbs
    Student ID: 812005997

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  46. Peasant farmers are normally engaged in farming cash crops in addition to providing for their own subsistence. The West Indian peasantry is an outgrowth of the slave plantation system. Ex-slaves started small farms on the boundaries of plantation areas wherever they could find, and on abandoned territories. Since the plantation had already obtained most of the best lands, most of the ex-slaves ended up settling on mountainous slopes, since most of the flat lands would have been used for the plantations. Not much assistance was given to these peasant farmers as they were biased. The present –day situation by the peasantry still reflects a struggle. For example, the Jamaican peasantry has not managed to secure very much of the economy’s agricultural land and other resources, and the little they have achieved can hardly be maintained. Also, given the poor quality of land that these peasant farmers would have obtained after slavery, they can hardly make a living on these small holdings and are forced to seek outside work. The movement of the plantations was distinctly from the plantations to the mountainous region. Presently, farmers are faced with the inability to use any sort of heavy machinery or equipment on these mountainous regions as it can cause landslides or simply destroy the lands.
    Food production, for most Caribbean countries, is done for export and this is the prime means of getting money to build the economy. However, due to the invention of new machinery being used by foreign markets, it allows goods to be sold at a cheaper rate. Take Jamaica for example, Jamaica produce bananas but because of the large market of Chiquita bananas being produced in the U.S, the Jamaican market has suffered since other countries choose to import the Chiquita bananas. Therefore, this banana market in Jamaica has suffered a great loss in its export trade. most Caribbean countries are in trouble because they are not taking initiatives to develop the peasantry farming and they also can not keep up with the export industry.

    Rekera Ambrally
    812001034

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  47. The role of the peasantry gave great contribution to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification. After emancipation, peasants occupied small fragments of land. They either occupied it illegally or they got marginal land which was of poor quality and had poor irrigation. Even those these peasants were allowed to farm on the land, they weren’t deemed a legal deed. Generation after generation, land has been passed down resulting in smaller fragmentations of land.
    The peasants gave great contribution to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification in that they introduced certain foods into the Caribbean countries such as pigtail, salt fish, dasheen, yam etc. They would eat the marginal parts of the animals such as the snout, tail, airs ,hoof. This culture was then passed on resulting in the variety of foods that we eat today.
    Peasants also found another way in terms of generating income such as carpentry, fisheries, sewing etc. They engaged themselves in diversification of agriculture on small land sizes and enhanced their own skills. The role of the peasantry seeks to influence the Caribbean economic sector by skyrocketing the GDP of the country. So many Caribbean economies lean on agriculture as their only means. Take for example: St Lucia suffered major loss of their crops due to a hurricane. Plant diseases are always on the rise and it be more sensible for them to rely on other sectors such as tourism and oil. Trinidad and Barbados are excellent examples to describe this sort of circumstance because they have a variety of economic options in case one fails.

    ReplyDelete
  48. The role of the peasantry gave great contribution to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification. After emancipation, peasants occupied small fragments of land. They either occupied it illegally or they got marginal land which was of poor quality and had poor irrigation. Even those these peasants were allowed to farm on the land, they weren’t deemed a legal deed. Generation after generation, land has been passed down resulting in smaller fragmentations of land.
    The peasants gave great contribution to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification in that they introduced certain foods into the Caribbean countries such as pigtail, salt fish, dasheen, yam etc. They would eat the marginal parts of the animals such as the snout, tail, airs ,hoof. This culture was then passed on resulting in the variety of foods that we eat today.
    Peasants also found another way in terms of generating income such as carpentry, fisheries, sewing etc. They engaged themselves in diversification of agriculture on small land sizes and enhanced their own skills. The role of the peasantry seeks to influence the Caribbean economic sector by skyrocketing the GDP of the country. So many Caribbean economies lean on agriculture as their only means. Take for example: St Lucia suffered major loss of their crops due to a hurricane. Plant diseases are always on the rise and it be more sensible for them to rely on other sectors such as tourism and oil. Trinidad and Barbados are excellent examples to describe this sort of circumstance because they have a variety of economic options in case one fails.

    registration # : 812000407

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  49. Peasantry contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture in many ways. First it created new forms of agriculture that we have today, such as large-scale commercial farming and even more modern types of farming such as hydroponics and aqua-culture. However, to society and economic diversification, peasant farming led to the diversification of crops such as bananas, sea-island cotton, coffee and cocoa, for example in Trinidad and Jamaica, cocoa is being produced, arrow-root in St Vincent, sea-island cotton in Antigua and Barbados and coconut and rice in Trinidad. This therefore contributed to the economic development of agriculture in the British West Indies, because the success of these crops, eventually became major export crops. This however contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification to some extent, because of the major constraints the ex-slaves experienced many years ago, and in corresponding to what farmers are facing today.
    Even though the Caribbean territories experienced the same long tumultuous colonial past of slavery and the plantation system, there are some islands whose economies are in trouble, for example in the Windward Islands of St Lucia and St Vincent, the disastrous Hurricane Tomas, wiped out their banana crop which therefore ruined their rural economy which accounts for approximately 9.75% of their GDP according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). These islands have also experience drought like conditions which led to an outbreak of black Sigatoka, which have decreased their banana yields up to 50%. Also in 2004, Hurricane Ivan ruined Grenada’s nutmeg industry which also affected their economy. However other islands such as Trinidad, Jamaica and Guyana that are not so vulnerable to natural disasters have found new alternatives other than the cultivation of crops to become more diversified and economically developed by producing oil, natural gas and bauxite.

    1.www.guardian.co.uk.global.development-poverty-matters-windward islands-caribbean-bananas

    2.Dookhan, Issac. (1971). A Post Emancipation History of the West Indies,Kingston,Jamaica.

    3.Parry, J H. et.al. A Short History of the West Indies,. McMillian and Co Ltd.

    4.Empowering a Peasantry in a Caribbean Context:Case of Land Settlement Scheme in Guyana 1868-1985,.University of the West Indies Press, 2000.

    Student ID #: 812005436
    Name : Priscilla Gueverra

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  50. Yes i fully agree that the role of the peasantry has vastly contributed to Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversity. After emancipation, the freed slaves settled on the hilly infertile land on which they planted a variety of crops unlike the monoculture that they were accustomed to on the plantations. The lands that the peasants settled on were small and would be fragmented from generation to generation making them even smaller.This is why today in the Caribbean countries farmers still occupy small pieces of land and produce a low output. They never had large enough pieces of land and enough labour to allow them to enjoy economies of scale, which would in turn bring in capital and increase output. On these small fragments of land, the peasants would plants crops such as cassava, dasheen and breadfruit. These foods can be seen in most Caribbean people diets today.

    The reason why some Caribbean countries would seem to be in trouble while some seem to be doing better is due to the fact that not all the countries were blessed with natural resources that would allow them to not fully depend on agriculture to drive their economy. For example Trinidad had oil and gas on which they depend mostly for income while countries like St. kitts and Nevis depend entirely on agriculture to keep their economy going. Another factor that would lead to the different states of economies in the Caribbean are natural disasters. When small Caribbean countries like Grenada are hit by hurricanes it is very difficult to recover from such disaster since the all the crops are destroyed and the economy depends entirely on agriculture. This would leave Grenada at a disadvantage as compared to Trinidad if they were both hit by hurricanes since Trinidad does not depend on agriculture.
    Liam Wiltshire
    812000980

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  51. Firstly, peasantry opened the commencing door to independence, it was the first spark which displayed the ability of the ex slaves to work and survive on their own terms without any external forces depending on it. This phenomena has experienced constant growth and has largely contributed towards the mindset of a Caribbean people, it has acted as a push to create independent thinkers in this region which can be held accountable for the high levels of development and economic prosperity experienced from then to now. It has acted to create the mind of a person able to create something out of nothing, a person who can survive on their own.
    Evolution depicts a sign of growth or development. Within the Caribbean evolution has not taken place simultaneously throughout and also to the same extent. Culture of the various Caribbean islands evolved from the various influences. Bear in mind that emancipation did not take place all at the same time in the Caribbean coupled with the fact that not all Caribbean islands had the same ethnic influences associated with each other. For example, while Trinidad and Tobago had the influence of the French, Spanish, Chinese, Indian, African and English which each contributed a fair amount to carving the culture and socio-economic status of this island today other islands such as Haiti, Jamaica and Barbados did not. Having various cultures catalyses economic growth, since, they each contribute different aspects of their way of life and thinking to improve standard of living. Additionally, all of the Caribbean islands aren’t equipped with the identical resources. Trinidad and Tobago is wealthy with oil on the other hand Grenada depends on tourism and nutmeg and cocoa for foreign exchange and Guyana, sugar cane and rice. Education is another contributing factor to economic development, again, here in Trinidad and Tobago education is free, this permits children to attain a higher level of education regardless of their financial situation, this is a result of contribution of the numerous cultures particularly the Indian culture and the Chinese, compared to other islands where students have to pay for schooling (Jamaica and Barbados).
    Shweta Trebouhansingh
    ID:811004001

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  52. The role of the peasantry has vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture because it came after the abolition of slavery. This was a time where one had freedom of choice and could create opportunities to better themselves (Conway 1989). This encouraged Caribbean agricultural development in such way that there was planting of cash crops. This introduced new as well as old crops. This reduced the occurrence of pests and helped maintain the virility of the soil. It afforded the luxury of trade thus increasing the maintenance of this movement.
    In the case of societal development, new communities were founded because of this movement. These communities provided a sense of religion and purpose with the implementation of churches and schools (Land Reform 1987). It also created markets which facilitated trade among peasant communities, such as maroon villages of Accompong of Jamaica.
    With economic development, peasantry encouraged the growth of more than one crop. This poly culture provided resistance from pests which would help maintain the yields of the peasant. Today, this is a form of food security whereby if the food market crashes the production provided by the peasants would act as a buffer.
    Some Caribbean economies are in jeopardy because some stayed with the Plantocracy attitude whereby one main crop will bring their bread and butter. This was encouraged by the preferential treatment of the European Union to islands such as St. Lucia. This caused their main crop to only be bananas. This caused pests such as black sigatoga. It also increased the likelihood of crop destruction at the hands of natural disasters. For example, Hurricane Dean on August 14th 2007 which caused destruction to islands such as St. Vincent, who today is still recovering.
    The Caribbean islands geography and quality of the soil are why Islands economies are in trouble. The island of Barbados has soil of mainly limestone. This creates soil with a high porosity therefore mainly ground provisions and sugar canes are grown.
    Some islands found natural resources such as gold (Guyana), bauxite (Jamaica) and natural gas and oil (Trinidad). Others diversified to become the leading Caribbean island of premier medicine such as Cuba.

    krystal rouse
    812000378

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  53. I agree with the statement that the role of peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture society and economic diversification.After emancipation,the peasants occupied lands that were either high in the mountains or on infertile flat lands.There, they produced a wide variety of crops and livestock for subsistence.They also introduced crops such as tobacco, cocoa, lime, orange, banana, coffee, cotton, nutmeg, arrowroot and spices.These crops were later adopted by the plantation and sold in the markets or exported.These crops were grown to help revive the economy.Cotton,banana,coffee and tobacco became major export crops in the Caribbean.Even though the peasants earned an income from this they still drove taxi,selling shops and even worked in shift jobs.This can still be seen today with URP and CEPEP workers.The peasants also influenced social institutions such as schools churches and even founded organisations such as The Agricultural Society in Trinidad and Tobago and also in Jamaica.Even though all these Caribbean countries shared the same evolution, some are better off than others because of many reasons.These include,the location of some Caribbean islands; where island such as Bahamas,Haiti,Jamaica,Dominican Republic and more of the northern and central Caribbean islands are frequently devastated by natural disasters like earthquakes,storms and hurricanes.These islands are frequently hit and can almost never recover economically.The high percentage of losses in crops and infrastructure cripples their economic development.Southern islands are rarely hit, and therefore have a better chance to become more developed. Another reason is the diseases that lower crop yield and quality. These include, Black Sigatoa (banana),Moko and Black pod (cocoa).This opened an avenue for international countries to become competitors and produce the same crops which had an impact on the Caribbean economy.It also encouraged organisations to pull out of marketing decisions.Countries that have more than one source of economy such as Trinidad and Tobago with agriculture ,tourism and oil and as are better off than others.But remember different countries have different resources and sources of economy to which some depend heavily on.Finally,countries that have one source economy need to make decisions to help protect their sources and try to introduce ways of another.
    812002079
    Joel Henry
    Ref.1 Gomes, P I (ed). Rural Development in the Caribbean. C Hurst & Co., London
    2. Beckford, G L. (1983). Persistent Poverty. Maroon Publishing House, Morant Bay, Jamaica.

    ReplyDelete
  54. Even though most Caribbean countries went through the same process of colonization emancipation and independence, most Caribbean countries are in trouble today for many reasons. There are numerous amount of reasons for this being so. One of these reasons is because of lack of resources. For example in the 19's oil was discovered in Trinidad and Tobago which seek to boost the economy drastically, also in other countries like Guyana gold was discovered and in Grenada was known for their spices. While these countries ascended, some never got going. These countries are faced with a number of problems such as governmental issues, lack of resources, climate [natural disasters] and also lack of a proper health care system. When there was yellow fever outbreak in the Caribbean, some islands couldn't provide vaccines which mean there were very sick people who couldn't work which means that the working class grew smaller as the virus was widespread. In a country like Antigua where there population is in the minority this would affect the economy, simply because most Caribbean countries depend on tourism for a source of income and tourist would restrain from coming to a country where there is poor health systems and also a outbreak of any virus or illness. There was an attempt to help these countries which brought life to the West Indies Federation in 1958. Then there was political reasons. Long ago people voted for there one, meaning there wasn't no sense of equality, people always want to have more, this lead to distribution of wealth being sectional. This lead to social unrest in many countries for example Haiti. to a great extent it is true to some sort where Caribbean countries are still in trouble and some are doing excellent, simply because of resources and the right people in control to run and share wealth and to look after the people of the land. once the right choices are made, things would run smooth and Caribbean countries may seem to be making some sort of economic progress.

    1. Beckford, G L. (1983). Persistent Poverty. Maroon Publishing House, Morant Bay, Jamaica.


    Keron Brache
    812002813

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  55. The role of the Peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification. This is true due to the fact that as a result of the Peasantry, most farms presently, are small scale and produce cash crops whereas Plantation Type Agriculture still exists, such as sugar cane plantations in Guyana. Small scale production systems began and eventually expanded. Diversification originated within the Slaves as the practice of mono crop agriculture was switched to multi crop agriculture. They introduced new crops such as citrus in Jamaica as well as spices in the Windward Islands and reinstated old crops.
    Peasants contributed to economic development by occupying themselves as farmers and wage earners. They occupied jobs such as fishing, shopkeeping and through their artistic skills. This can still be seen today as farmers hold posts in the city council and various agricultural institutions. Peasants formed social networks so they could interact with one another through churches, communities, villages and schools which also softened the rigid class divisions that may have existed. In the Caribbean today, these social institutions are still present and serve almost the same purpose as they did for the Peasantry.
    The Caribbean economies are in trouble today due to the soils being exhausted. Over time soil and land degradation takes places from consistent farming of crops. Hence leading to crops of poor quality. The government of some islands contribute to this predicament by not funding or giving farmers incentives. Less people are farming because they don’t have to necessary funding to start and maintain and it isn’t easy to get the funds from banks.

    Name: Ronnard Ramlochan
    Student I.D: 812002629

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  56. The role of peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification to the extent that peasantry in the Caribbean dates back to 1838. This is because the ex-slaves cultivated a variety of goods and raised a variety of animals on fairly small pieces of property without the help of hired labour and largely for subsistence purposes. This is also known as peasantry. These mainly existed on areas where the main economic activities of the Europeans did not have control and in opposition to and in competition with plantation despite their interdependence. Activities such as fishing, shop keeping and casual estate work were also some non-agricultural activities included in peasantries. This also involved the production of some goods for sale in local markets.
    Peasantry has contributed to the Caribbean society socially, culturally and economically. Socially by enhancing money and time management skills of slaves and later ex-slaves, endangering self-reliance, planning and political awareness amongst ex-slaves, maintaining social and economic stability in rural and non-plantation areas via attempts to build self-generating communities, villages, churches, schools and softening the rigid class divisions that existed. Culturally by adding new and renewed cuisines and artistry and artisanship to the Caribbean. Economically by slaves learning cultivation skills and soil management, adding to the establishment of the local cooperatives movement and P.C. banks, adding to the export and trade of the Caribbean countries via the diversification of agricultural produce and increasing self-sufficiency especially in the export markets.
    So many economies are in trouble because some do not have the natural resources in order to survive economically. Unlike Trinidad and Tobago where there is the pitch lake or natural gases or other islands where certain fruits are their resources.
    Reshma Sharma
    812003309

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  57. Jamaica’s monoculture sugar economy became diversified due to peasant farming. Peasants planted a wide variety of crops. Cash crops were grown example coffee, bananas and oranges, stable crops were also produced such as yam, cassava, dasheen new crops were introduced for instance logwood. Despite having small parcels of lands which had poor quality soil, peasants produce a vast quantity of crops. However, not all their crops succeeded due to their lack of knowledge about diseases and the shortage of resources. Hence, the quantity and quality of crops decrease encouraging Jamaican peasants shift away from agriculture into non-agricultural activities example tourism. Formal organisations such as Jamaica Agriculture Society and People Cooperative Loan Bank of Jamaica soon came into Jamaica. These organizations provide peasants with small loans on reasonable terms encouraging them to establish communities. Peasants pooled their resources together and built social facilities like churches, schools, markets etc. Accompong Town, in St. Elizabeth, Jamaica is one of the peasant’s communities.
    Guyana is best known for its high production of rice throughout the Caribbean. Guyana’s landscape is most suitable for rice cultivation. For instance, the vast amount of coastal plains, its extensive river system and ample water supply is ideal for maximum production of rice. In addition, Guyana has an abundant cheap labour force and high rainfalls these conditions favour rice cultivation. The rice cultivation is not affected by hurricanes since Guyana lies south of the path of Caribbean hurricanes and none is known to have hit the country. In contrast, to Dominica, this is one of the poorest and least developed of the Windward Islands. Its economy is mainly dependent on agricultural exports, especially bananas. Cultivation is prohibits due to its exceptionally mountainous landscapes and its vulnerability to hurricanes. On august the 14th Dominica experienced hurricane Dean that destroyed 80% -100% of their bananas crops.
    Ref.1 Gomes, P I (ed). Rural Development in the Caribbean. C Hurst & Co., London
    Name: Shanaz Bharat
    Student ID: 812001663

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  58. The peasantry started around 1838 and consisted mainly of ex-slaves who grew crops on their own farms. Now they have evolved into independent cultivators, planting mainly cash crops combined with other activities such as fishing, shop keeping or casual estate work.
    The peasantry today is contributing to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification by providing alternative means of employment and an alternative to mono-crop production in an environment in which many Caribbean states have lost preferential European markets due to globalization and free trade for their main crops, for example: sugar (from Guyana, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago) and bananas (from the Leeward and Windward islands).
    Yet it can be argued that the peasantry’s contribution to Caribbean society and economic development is minimal in Caribbean countries that possess mineral wealth such as in Trinidad and Tobago (oil and gas) and Jamaica (bauxite). In these countries the exploitation of mineral resources has directed economic development and growth and attracted labour away from peasant farming. In Barbados and the Leeward and Windward islands it is tourism which attracts labour from the peasantry. Peasantry development in the Caribbean is hindered and most countries, including the tourism dependent ones, import a significant portion of their agricultural needs from outside the region.
    Even though Caribbean countries share the same evolution, many Caribbean are in trouble because they have failed to develop the peasantry. In the Windward and Leeward Islands and Jamaica the full benefit of tourism in not realized as tourist dollars earned must be used to import food to support the tourism sector rather than for development spending. Trinidad and Tobago with oil and gas revenues is among the least affected. However, this is unsettling as fluctuating oil and gas prices lead to occasional negative economic growth. We must keep in mind that in the absence of mineral wealth or a flow of tourist, the alternative of agriculture remains a viable option for Caribbean society.

    Shelly Ann Mohammed
    811004118

    ReplyDelete
  59. The role of peasantry contributed vastly to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification.
    This statement is true to large extent as peasantry is what the Caribbean has been shaped by. In today’s society, small scale farming is very important. This allows for the production of cash crops. However, agriculture was originallybased on the plantation system. This concept still exists in sugar cane production as can be seen in countries such as Guyana. Economic diversification can be evidently seen also. Plantation crops were exported; but now because of peasantry, local markets which sell crops at a smaller scale are very popular in the Caribbean. In addition, freed slaves originally from Africa and indentured labourers from India, China or even Portugal were involved in the history of peasantry. As a result, the mixture of all the different cultures and customs are now instilled in the Caribbean society. Additionally, the introduction of new crops and re-introduction of older crops today, also shows that peasantry had a strong influence. For instance, cocoa, spices and bananas were re-introduced to the Windward Islands such as St. Lucia, St. Vincent, the Grenadines and Grenada. Despite sharing the same evolutionary history, some Caribbean economies are in trouble while others are better off. This is because the agricultural economy’s success is dependent on the size of the country, the amount of available resources in that country and the amount of labour available or willing to work in the agricultural sector. Hence, because most of the Caribbean countries are very small in size and have a limited muber of resources available, they suffer. Additionally, some countries specifically grow one crop in particular and therefore rely on other sources of income like tourism to compensate. For instance, Dominica is majorly dependent on growing bananas. If diseases were to affect this crop in a large scale manner, the country will suffer economically. The countries whose economies flourish today are countries like Trinidad or Guyana. But this is not necessarily due to agriculture alone. These countries have other natural resources like oil and Bauxite which can contribute greatly to the ecomony.

    Saeedah Baksh
    810002134

    ReplyDelete
  60. The statement that the role of peasantry contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification had great truth to it. This can be easily reflected if we simply make our way to our market place such as the chaguanas market we see hundreds of people selling produce to make a livelihood an contributing to sustainable development. They sell produce such as banana, citrus, coconut an many more which have all been inhabited from crops peasants introduced as they had to experiment an plant to survive as they receive little or no help from there government. Our society today have also adapted the traditions introduced by peasants for survival as the peasants thought them that land cultivation wasn’t the only means by which to survive they showed them new ways such as fishing and shop keeping which still exist today. Even though we all went through the save revolution together some Caribbean economies have been affected differently from some. The island of Trinidad for example had alternative avenues open to them such as the oil and gas industry and a very successful energy sector but there are countries like Haiti which is greatly affected by poverty because of the low fertility in their soil. Other countries like Guyana have resources which can assist them to flourish and become a wealthy nation but there government refuses any multinational organizations from establishing in their country because they don’t want to lose authority and have their culture diminished. So this is why I believe many Caribbean islands are so different from each other even though we strongly embraced the livelihood of the peasantry we just handled evolution differently
    SHAY RACKAL
    811003817

    ReplyDelete
  61. As we look around the Caribbean today, we can still see the aftermath of the peasantry, and thus, I must agree that the role of the peasantry has vastly contributed to the agricultural, social and economic diversification of the region. Most farmers in the Caribbean have small plots of land to cultivate and are due to the fact that freed slaves divvied their parcel of land equally among their descendants. After many generations of this trend, the end result today is small plots of land that are not big enough for machinery to be operated upon, hence the use of simple tools such as, forks, shovels, cutlass etcetera. Also, since these ex-slaves had no monetary resources, they were basically dependant on their land and so, had to grow a variety of food to meet their dietary needs such as pumpkin, root crops such as dasheen, breadfruit melon gene, peppers…which are main crops of the Caribbean today.
    Since the society consisted of ex-slaves and their descendants, their norms, values, culture, foods way of life and even religion pervaded the areas they settled and by extension region. The sense of camaraderie, community and respect for those in authority are some characteristics that would be displayed by the descendants. Foods such as Tania, yams, green banana will be eaten with stew turkey in St. Vincent and Couscous and smoked herrings and Titiwi used for ackra in Dominica.
    Economic diversification is continuously proving to be a daunting task in the Caribbean. Many islands are small in size, mountainous like Barbados, have limited resources like Haiti. Many depend on Tourism while other countries have natural resources which allow their economies to diversify. For example, Trinidad has oil, natural gas, pitch, Jamaica has Bauxite, Cuba with oil and nickel etcetera. The fact that some Caribbean countries have natural resource and others don’t is the main reason why some islands can diversify their economies, and are better off than other islands.

    References:
    "CANARI : Welcome." CANARI : Welcome. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Sept. 2012. .

    Name: Sihle Mendoza
    ID:811002601

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  62. Peasantry has contributed to the development of many Caribbean countries’s agricultural, societal and economic diversification resulting of some countries being more advanced and economically stable than others. Not all plantations were the same due to the geographic locations and the different landscaping, soil conditions, practices, the ruling government and implemented laws a lot of external factors contributed to such. The farming practices that we once done in farmers such as monoculture by which they relied on most times were not efficient use of the land and over a period of time the land may become degraded and exhausted leading to a time period by which there would be no generation of financial security for a period of time that could affect the economy. The ruling governance may have contributed to enabling economic diversification, Technical Backwardness is due to lack of resources and some Caribbean countries being larger than the others may have more resources than the other for example Trinidad have resources such as Oil, Agriculture, Tourism as to another country may depend on Agriculture alone such as Dominica. It depends on the ruling body of a country or the government by which is run by that aids the agricultural sector that would greatly contribute to the economic growth of a country by boosting its GDP standard of living , technological advancements that could be used in research to improvise other methods of earning revenue and preventing losses to a countries’ GDP for example in st Kitts and Nevis the (IICA) and (CARDI) promotes a project for production of food in a protected environment so that if in any instance their was to be a natural disaster no loss would be incurred and at least the economy would be stable without food insecurity.
    812001372
    Kristien Jebodsingh

    ReplyDelete
  63. Peasantry helped to establish the concept of individuals pooling their resources together for issues such as building schools bridges roads and most of the collective needs of the community. This came about due to the fact that these ex slaves were unable to attain loans because they had no entitlement to the lands on which they occupied. The began growing their own produce including a lot of cash crops as a means of obtaining money this encouraged cash flow and helped boost the local economy. Socially due to this pooling of resources there came the emergence communities being developed. With the growing of a variety of crops there began to become a diversification of the economy later in some countries such as Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica there came the discovery of natural resources such as natural gas and oil and bauxite. Thus there was a move in the economy structure from agriculture to industrial with these countries and others with similar resources being able to develop quicker than those without such resources

    809003029
    shrees morgan

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  64. The Caribbean was colonized by the Europeans. The plantations were mostly mono-crop; one popular crop grown in the Caribbean for export was sugar cane. The peasantry development was a rapid forming society after Emancipation in 19 century. In islands where the ex-slaved could of settle far from the plantation their did. The settlement pattern and livelihood of these peasants would have impacted on our present society. They diversified the crops and planted more provisions like cassava, vegetables such as dashee, pastle and clive. They reared sheep and goats in most islands. So their determined the food the citizens eat. The plots of land occupied were either on the hillsides or marginal lines that was basically unfertile and small. Wherever there settle may have been name by them one such example is in Trinidad Point Fortin Strikers Village.
    Over time some Caribbean nations moved away from their agrarian society due solely on the new found mineral resources; Trinidad had oil and pitch, Jamaica bauxite and Guyana bauxite and gold while others remained agricultural societies such as Grenada ‘the spice island’. In the 20th century many countries develop their tourism sector such as Barbados.
    The countries whose back bone is agriculture due to globalization and trade liberalization which is against preferential treatment is causing major problems for them as there are not able to compete on the worlds market due to labour cost, lack of technology, can only produce on a small scale compare to other countries who has economies of scale in their favour. To add to that the hurricane path of destruction makes the situation worst. Three other factors that heavily impacts on the productivity of these small countries are the land mass size, geography of the land (hilly, flat, soil types) and population size all restrict productivity and limit opportunities. The tourism industries are heavily dependent on foreign revenue but due to the economic depression recently they have been a decline on the profits marginal.
    ID 812004758
    Leeba Bradshaw- Lucillio

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  65. Peasantry in the Caribbean dates back to 1838. Historically, it existed on the crevices of society; it existed in opposition to and in competition with the plantation, despite their independence and they incorporated activities such as shop keeping, fishing and casual estate work. Additionally, they have always involved the production of some goods for sale in the local market. They added to the export and trade of Caribbean countries via the diversification of agricultural produce.
    Socially, it enhanced the time management skills of slaves and later ex slaves, engendered self reliance, planning, political awareness among slaves and it softened the rigid class division that existed. By attempting to build self - generating communities, churches, schools and villages, the slaves maintained social and economic stability in rural and non- plantation areas. Thus, to a great extent, the role of peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification.
    Some Caribbean countries thrive economically more than others due to their openness to international markets, availability of their natural resources, geography, independence, political stability etc. For example, Trinidad and Tobago is the only state in the group with oil and natural gas in significant commercial quantities. Apart from Grenada, there have been more all round turbulence in the political atmosphere in Guyana, Suriname, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago- most not-so-good performers and the larger states in the group. These are just a few of the reasons that differentiate the Caribbean economies, even if we shared the same evolution.
    Name: Cherice Wolfe
    Student ID: 811004515

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  66. The period of establishment of the peasantry began in 1838 immediately after emancipation. The ex- slaves occupied large holdings of marginal lands mostly on mountainous regions where they cultivated cash crops for generations. Peasant activity modified the character of the original pure plantation economy and society. They diversified the basically monocultural pattern by introducing or reintroducing crops like bananas, coffee, citrus, coconuts cocoa and logwood in the Windward Islands. All these crops were adopted by planters and was an important element in the export trade by the 1870s.
    The peasants initiated the conversion of these plantation territories into modern societies. In a variety of ways they attempted to build self- generating communities as they founded villages and markets, they built churches, schools, they clamoured for the extension of educational facilities, for improvement in communications and markets and even started the local cooperative movement. However, due to the lack of knowledge, training and finance and the means to attain such resources the farmers was severely limited in combating the attacks of diseases on these fragile crops and was unable to thrive.
    Another factor that restricted the success of some Caribbean economies that rely on these crops is the sheer size of them. For example larger countries such as India and Ecuador would have more acreage for cultivation of bananas and would be able to benefit from economies of scale, being able to produce at a cheaper price than Dominica for example. The seize and quantity produced opens up an avenue for exploitation of these small producers by large multinational buyers and sellers such as Dole and Chiquita as many of these small farmers receive very small sums for their produce which is in turn sold for a much larger price by the multinational.
    It is true that as Caribbean countries we all share the same evolution, but it can clearly be seen that some economies are doing better than some. This is as a result of various countries being able to tap into their individual resources. For example Trinidad and Tobago has a substantial amount of oil and is a producer of natural gas which helps to support and sustain its economy, whereas Barbados and most of the islands in the Lesser Antilles are endowed with a beautiful eco-environment and is thus able to generate most of their income through tourism.

    www.ruralpovertyportal.org
    www.slideshare.net.aubynjm/independant-peasantry-caribbean-studies
    Rohan Persad
    812001966

    ReplyDelete
  67. Peasantry definitely contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification. Peasant activity modified the characteristics of the original pure plantation economy and society. The peasants were innovators in the economic life of the community and also produced a great quantity and variety of subsistence and livestock introducing new and reintroducing old crops. Some of the crops they introduced were bananas, coffee, citrus, yam and cocoa just to name a few.
    Peasantry also had a significant effect on Caribbean society as a whole where different ethnic groups brought their customs, food, clothing and language etc. to the Caribbean example, the Indian indentured labourers bringing roti and their various Indian wears, (saris).
    Peasantry also contributed to economic diversification in a big way. Presently, economic diversification is an issue that all Caribbean territories need to address in order to be economically successful, however this is something difficult to do as most territories are small in size and have limited resources, for example most islands in the lesser Antilles rely solely on tourism and agriculture which is constrained by land issues due to mountainous terrain, such as in countries that grow one crop and that is their main income, they are governed by that crop for example bananas in Dominica, banana prices and diseases affect the entire country, and its economic state. However some territories for example Trinidad and Guyana have other natural resources, oil and Bauxite respectively thus allowing them to further diversify their economies and gain economically from various places making them more marketable.
    This is why even though most Caribbean countries shared the same evolution, some economies are more prosperous than others.

    Justin Josh Boodoo
    812002996

    ReplyDelete
  68. In Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification, it is true to a great extent that the role of peasantry has vastly contributed to an increase in development within these areas. Peasant Farming is firstly defined as the cultivation of crops and rearing of animals on a small scale, which was first mainly introduced by ex-slaves.
    Peasantry made a vast contribution to the development of agriculture throughout the Caribbean as the peasants practiced subsistence farming to provide food for themselves and their families, in addition to producing cash crops to make extra money. Peasant farmers in many Caribbean societies today now produce a large percentage and a wide variety of crops and livestock that fuel countries populations. Peasants within the Caribbean also incorporated other forms of making money with the help of side jobs such as fishermen, shop keepers and others. Most of today's farmers are peasant farmers, and it provides a wider scale for agriculture without the need to pay taxes or suffer bankruptcy
    The contribution made economically and to the society is also quite notable, as peasants introduced new crops and re-introduced old ones, which formed an integral part of the export and trade sectors in Caribbean economies. For example, Jamaica was able to make money from exporting and trading crops such as coffee, citrus , cocoa and others, while the Windward islands had crops to offer for these same purposes such as cocoa, spices, bananas and others. While socially, the peasants maintained stable relationships with the other people living in close proximity to them leading to the formation of villages, schools and communities where people would be given the opportunity to live harmoniously.
    One reason why so many Caribbean economies are in trouble, could be the shortage of land, which caused restrictions on peasants to form a strong based agricultural society which could lead to a stable export and trade industry, which may have mainly been in the case in the smaller Caribbean islands.
    Makeda Derrick
    ID NO: 812002849

    ReplyDelete
  69. Yes it is true that the role of the peasantry has vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification. When peasantry began in 1838, ex-slaves started small farms wherever they could have found land. They either occupied these lands illegally or got marginal land which was of poor quality. Also, there was a system of tenancy where these peasants acquired lands to farm on estates buy there was no ownership rites given to these lands.
    However, as the years went by, peasant activity modified the character of the original pure plantation economy and society. These peasants were innovators in the economic life of the community in that they produced a great quantity and variety of subsistence and livestock. Also, they even introduced new crops and re-introduced old ones for example, cassava, bananas, coffee, cocoa, etc. From this we can see that they diversified a basically mono cultural pattern which reaped many economic benefits.
    Moreover, as time progressed, these peasants eventually started getting an education and began initiating the conversion of these plantation territories into modern societies making attempts to build local self-generating communities such as villages and markets, they built churches and schools and even they started the local co-operative movement. Furthermore, they were now able to generate higher revenues.
    Nevertheless, even though all Caribbean economies shared the same evolution, yet still many of them are facing difficulties. A reason for this may be that not all countries are fortunate enough to have natural resources for example as Trinidad and Tobago do since they rely heavily on agriculture alone. For example, in the Lesser Anilles, most territories rely solely on tourism and agriculture to bring in capital into their countries. These countries however face many challenges whereas in Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica has oil and bauxite to help them further diversify their economies and make them more marketable.

    Sacha Seunarine
    812001522

    ReplyDelete
  70. The role of peasantry greatly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification. Peasantry started at emancipation in 1838. After emancipation it was difficult for the ex-slaves to find profitable employment as there was restriction in occupation open to different classes. In the limited occupations offered to them, they invaded those occupations in the public service, in commerce and in agriculture. Small scale agriculture and retail trading were the most popular employment for those who left the estates. Those who worked as apprentices saved their wages earned to buy land, tools or carts to set up as small farmers or traders. The ex-slaves were very knowledgeable and skilled farmers. They grew cops such as maize, yam, fruits and a variety of other provisions to maintain a livelihood. Small profit from small scale farming was saved and used to gradually build businesses. Religious bodies provided schooling but only for the families who could afford it and who considered the benefits.
    Some of the planters decided to employ agricultural methods from the slaves. The plough and harrow were two most important labor saving devices introduced after emancipation. They were used in Trinidad, Jamaica and British Guiana. In Barbados and the Leeward Islands they were much slower to introduce these agricultural practices. There was also growing interest in soil chemistry and the use of fertilizers. The peasants also introduced new crops such as coffee and tobacco and also re introduced old ones. Trade also increased as the ex-slaves had to buy their own food, clothing and essential equipment as they were no longer satisfied with the bare necessities of life. Some planters did not benefit from these implementations. They faced problems from natural hazards such as floods of poor crops. Many estates were encumbered by debt and some sold their estates, or surrendered them to their creditors. They also suffered from shortage of labor as slaves were reluctant to work on the estates and thus suffered from a fall in the sugar industry.
    Kenisha Etter
    812001015

    ReplyDelete
  71. In the Caribbean society, agriculture and economic diversification developed by the role of peasantry significantly. Peasantry (peasant activity) modified the plantation economy from being the original pure plantation economy into a society and innovative community. For instance they provided a great quantity and variety of subsistence food and livestock, they further introduced new crops and reintroduced old ones. Diversifying the mono cultural pattern. 1 "In Jamaica there were banana, coffee, citrus coconuts, cocoa and logwood. In the Windward islands these were the main export crops: cocoa, arrowroot, spices and logwood." The peasants developed the economy by exporting and trading in the 1870s, then this was adopted by the planters.
    Further another way in which the role of the peasantry contributed to development are they founded villages and markets. They built churches, schools and after emancipation informal co-operatives originated. In which they pooled together to enhance the drainage and building of churches and schools.
    In the Caribbean, all the territories shared the same evolution but some Caribbean economies are facing number of challenges and some aren't. An issue addressed earlier, not all the crops used for export succeeded for instance peasant coffee in Jamaica. Another tropical issues, the Caribbean is located in a geographical hemisphere, in which some islands are probed to hurricanes. Furthermore the amalgamation of industries have saved some Caribbean economies and thus making them better than the others. Another some Caribbean countries diversified there economy, by not depending only on agriculture as a source of income. They searched and use other natural resources to make the economy rich. For instance Trinidad used there natural resource of oil, thus booming there economy. Tobago ventured into tourism in
    which various tourists visit the wonderful twin island.

    812117260


    "Peasant Development in the West Indies Since 1838." Google Books. P I Gomez, n.d. Web. 01 Oct. 2012.

    ReplyDelete
  72. Peasantry is the cultivation of small numbers but a wide variety of crops and the rearing of a variety of animals. Peasantry represents mostly represents subsistence farming and agriculture. Peasantry greatly helped the diversification of crops and animals in the Caribbean.
    Peasantry started since 1838 when the emancipation of the slaves took place. The ex-slaves began farming for subsistence purposes, growing a combination of various crops and rearing different animals, as they abandoned the mono- crop plantation. These peasants greatly boosted the social, economic and agricultural level in the Caribbean.
    The ex- slaves had strong social interactions through peasantry. Though most of the produce were for subsistence purposes, sometimes the excess would be carried to the market to be sold or trade for other goods. Families worked together to tend to the variety of animals being reared and they all took part in planting and harvesting the crops. This peasantry kept close bonds amongst families and the ex-slaves.
    The Caribbean have benefited economically through these peasants. This form of agriculture created a diversity of crops and so these peasants planted different crops. This is why today, Jamaica is known for it bananas and Trinidad known for its cocoa.
    Some countries invested greatly in agriculture while some minimally invest in it. Trinidad for example invests heavily in energy and in oil and little in agriculture. This also affects scientific and market research and so diseases destroy many of the crops in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is also plagued with hurricanes and flooding and so this natural phenomenon affects agricultural productivity.
    Peasantry has greatly affected the Caribbean and would continue to do so in these countries.
    Saleem Abdul Aziz
    810001275

    ReplyDelete
  73. Caribbean peasantry has its roots in the kitchen gardens and provision grounds that slaves cultivated during their few respites from labour on the plantations. The practice of subsistence farming inadvertently prepared slaves to be more self-sufficient and spurred the establishment of the peasantry upon emancipation in 1838. Although hegemony of land by the planter class was present, freed slaves purchased plots of land or appropriated land by squatting. The “located labour system” during Indentureship also contributed to the development of the peasantry.
    The freed slaves proved to be industrious and diversified the mono crop system of agriculture by producing a variety of fruit and vegetables, in addition to livestock and small scale dairy production. Bananas, coffee, citrus, cocoa and coconut were some of the cultivated crops. Ironically some plantation owners would adopt the production of some of these crops for export when the markets for sugar became unfavourable. Fishing, shop keeping and casual estate work were other ways in which the peasantry contributed to their food baskets and pockets and on a macro scale-the economy.
    The continued disenfranchisement of the peasantry and implementation of policies that served to impede peasantry development, sparked rebellions such as the early Morant Bay rebellion-the only peasant revolt in Jamaica in 1865, and later labour uprisings throughout the Caribbean islands. Leaders such as Uriah Butler and Adrian Rienzi Cola were foremost champions of the working class in the 1930’s in Trinidad. The industrious peasantry proved the naysaying plantation class and colonial powers wrong and founded villages, churches, schools, friendly societies and cooperatives. The peasantry through its grassroots organizations forced reforms long before the Moyne Commission report of 1939 led to social reform.
    Many Caribbean economies (such as those of the Winward Islands) are in trouble because of failure to diversity and a continued reliance on a mono-crop as the main source of national income. Countries such as Jamaica and Trinidad are “blessed” with bauxite and oil respectively, and others such as Barbados have embraced tourism. Notably Haiti the first country to liberate itself from slavery during the Haitian revolution of (1791-1804) has remained impoverished due to the legacy of harsh financial penalties imposed on it by France its former colonizer.

    Veronica Williams-Bunbury
    810004517

    ReplyDelete
  74. The role of peasantry vastly contributed to the development of Caribbean agriculture and society and economic diversification. After the end of slavery the slaves were given land,which they cultivated to produce food for themselves and also to sell. The slaves shifted from sugar cane and planted small crops which would generate a faster income for them and also the land was generally small.
    The slaves made what they had do, with the income that they gained they started to form villages and pooled together and build schools and churches. Since they were generally very good farmers their sole income was based on farming. The development of the Caribbean was mainly by farming since that was the skill of most people within the caribbean.
    This has helped shaped the way in which the Caribbean peasantry is today, their are slight disadvantages since the land space is small so in todays modern world it is hard of machinery to operate so labor is done maually. Peasantry has played its part in the development. Caribbean countries still earn revenue from farming but most of them has shifted and depend on Natual resoures ans service rather than Agriculture and service. Trindad depend mostly on the oil and manufacturing industry as opposeed the Barbados which depends on Tourism, these countries Agriculture still contributes to their revenue but to a small percentage compared to Manufacturing and Tourism.

    Stephon Mc Carthy
    812002247

    ReplyDelete
  75. Caribbean agriculture, society and economic diversification greatly depended on role of peasants. After emancipation many of the plantation owners divided their estates into smaller parcels of land that were sold to the freed slaves who had enough money to purchase the lands. Those who could not afford to purchase land moved to marginal lands. They continued to work both the plantation lands and marginal lands diversifying into various crops e.g. provision, tomatoes, citrus, bananas and livestock while some remained to produce crops like cocoa, cotton and sugar. Farmers who developed themselves from the plantation period earned revenue from exportation of those crops leading to economic development. However factors such as social and geographic variation ensured different levels of economic development among the Caribbean countries as the land fertility and topography determined the type and quantity of crops that could be produced for export. This also created a portal for social movement upwards. The peasants also contributed to the development of the economy by establishing and improving villages, market, churches, schools, agricultural associations, co operatives, banks and other financial institutions. The governments realizing the emerging power of this group help established deals with international countries for their agricultural produce hence the sector contributed to the country’s GDP. Agricultural diversification also went the route of value added products. Caribbean economies that are presently in trouble are so because of the governments miss management of funds and resources of the country both agricultural and other wise e.g. they discontinued development of the agricultural sector and now have to import foodstuff.
    Nadine Holder
    812005571

    ReplyDelete